Urinate. Micturate a lot. Urinate often (polyuria). Get up at night to urinate (nocturia). Lots of dilute watery urine. You get thirsty.

That's what you go through when you have diabetes insipidus.

There are two causes:
1. nephrogenic = the kidney does not respond to vasopressin (a.k.a. ADH a.k.a. antidiuretic hormone)
2. neurogenic = there is insufficient production of ADH

Dehydration is the usual complication as this condition can cause the loss of 3 or more litres of fluid per day. Some patients have been known to urinate up to 16 litres per day.

Diabetes insipidus is not to be confused with the more common diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidous is not related to a problem with the insulin levels in the body.

Primarily diabetes exists in two forms the second is Diabetes Insipidus:


Diabetes Insipidus is the second and less common of the two forms. Diabetes is a very complicated disease and there is always a large unknown factor when treating and diagnosing the disease. Four forms of diabetes Insipidus have been identified and their causes and/or cures run thus:

1: Neurogenic: is caused by a deficiency of the hormone vasopressin.

2: Nephrogenic: is caused by insensitivity of the kidneys to the effect of the hormone vasopressin.

3: Gestagenic: is caused by a deficiency of the hormone vasopressin. (Only occurs during pregnancy)

4: Dipsogenic: is caused by abnormal thirst and the excessive intake of water or other liquids.

These four forms are linked closely so I shall go over the symptoms in general.

In general sufferers of Diabetes Insipidus have weak kidneys and will often have to go to the toilet three or four times a night, as their urine is diluted with glucose. Most forms of Insipidus are linked to the part of the brain called the hypothalamus, which produces the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, hence sufferers of brain tumors or serious head injuries often develop Diabetes Insipidus. Damage to the pituitary gland often results in, neurosurgery. This is not always the case (at least 25% of cases) doctors have no idea what caused the disease to develop. Diabetes Insipidus should in no way be confused with Diabetes Mellitus (or sugar diabetes) they are two completely different diseases.

The treatment for Diabetes Insipidus is optional, they have no way (as of yet) to cure Diabetes Insipidus, though some of the symptoms can be treated; a medicine called DDAVP can be used to stop the need to urinate at night and come in the form of a nasal spray. Scientists have been working on using a “water” pill called hydrochlorothiazide to help sufferers of DI Nephrogenic and recent trials of the pill with sufferers have been so far successful. Another treatment recently developed is a synthetic hormone called desmopressin and can be taken by an injection, it can act as a substitute for hormones. Because of the excess amounts of diluted urine suffers can be dehydrated quickly so plenty of water is important.

This area of the brain is where most cases of Diabetes Insipidus have been linked too; the hypothalamus produces a hormone, which controls the amount of urine, made by the kidneys.

The Endocrine system is a group of ductless glands, (found brain, neck, pancreas ovaries and testes.) that secrete hormones necessary for normal growth and development, reproduction, and homeostasis (normal functioning.)

A wide variety of physiological processes are carried out by the endocrine system through chemical messengers called “hormones” The hormones regulate metabolism, growth and sexual development. These glands release the hormones directly into the bloodstream, where they are transported to organs and tissues throughout the entire body.


Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. Publishers since 1876. ECLECTICISM to EUTERPE. Volume 9. Published in United States of America. Funk and Wagnalls L.P

Graeme Lofts, Merrin J. Evergreen. Science Quest3. Second edition published 2000 by John Wiley & Sons Australia.




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