In this Diet, one of the most important of the 16th Century, Charles V discovered that despite his victory at the Battle of Muhlberg, 1547 he could not impose his will upon the Protestants.

The Catholics produced the Augsburg Interim, supposedly a compromise but actually just a statement of the Catholic faith. Charles attempted to impose this upon the whole of the Holy Roman Empire but he failed to realise how deeply entrenched Lutheranism was and so failed.

Charles also ran into opposition from Catholic Princes as they were worried that Charles’ increased power would threaten their autonomy. This meant that Charles’ position now deteriorated again:

  • Family dispute, 1548-1552, between Ferdinand and Philip.
  • General Council of Trent reconvened, 1551-1552, with German and Lutheran delegates however there was little progress.
  • Elector Maurice of Saxony was key. Had got what he wanted from Charles and as Charles’ position weakened he distanced himself from him and attempted to patch things up with his fellow Lutherans.

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