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The annual all-Athenian celebration for the goddess Athena. The holiday was celebrated every year, but every fourth year it was conducted in great pomp and magnificence. The purpose of the holiday was to change the 'Peplos' (Greek for frock, but this peplos was no more than a cover for a statue) of the statue of the goddess in her temple - The Parthenon.

This peplos was weaved for a whole year by twelve virgin maidens, and no non-virgin was allowed to touch it (save the priests of Athena, of course).

The peplos was carried to the Parthenon in a great procession accompanied by music and dancing. It was considered a great honour to be allowed to participate in the procession

This ceremony was followed by several days of festivities, in which athletic as well as poetic competitions were held.

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