from 1903-1914, during which time modern
thinking was beginning to affect the church
. Pius X was wary of reform
. He believed stongly in the Catholic Church
as an institution
. He considered it disobedient for clergy
to explore new explanations and approaches. People participating in these practices were called modernists
, and many of them, including Alfred Loisy
, and George Tyrell
. It was not until Vatican II
that the ideas of these scholars were accepted.
In 1907 Pius X published two decrees: Lamentabili, and Pascendi. Both were clear statements against modernity. In Pascendi, Pius X requires all bishops and seminary professors to take an oath against modernity. It also ecouraged censorship, which resulted in the formation of a secret society, the Sodalitium Pianum, which spied on suspected moderists.