The parts of speech in Sindarin include verbs,
nouns, personal pronouns,
and the following:
i = the
e.g. i Drann "the Shire"
i Estel "the Hope"
i Wenyn "the twins"(*)
(*) - Unusual, as normally a plural definite (in) would be employed
here, e.g. i adar "the man" > in edain "the men".
The Plural Definite Article, in triggers nasal lenition,
e.g. tîw "letter" > i thîw "the letters" (representing in tîw)
but i tîw "the letter" (sg.)
en = genitive definite article,
also seen in prepositions
e.g. na "to" > nan "to the"
There is no indefinite article
(N.B. a < as < *a(h))
III. ADVERBS, ADJECTIVES & PREPOSITIONS
Please note, Ryszard Derdzinski has compiled an extensive list of attested
adverbs, adjective, and prepositions, in his article Summary of Sindarin
Grammar (available at http://www.elvish.org/gwaith/sindarin_intro.htm
). The lists include numerals; adverbs of place, time, manner, order,
quantity, certainty, and interrogatives; and prepositions. I have not
duplicated these here, because I do not have anything substantive to add to
his work, nor have I asked his permission to duplicate these list on e2.
The following points should be made about these parts of speech, however:
Prepositions go before the noun in a sentence, and the noun will undergo consonantal mutation (lenition).
Adjective usually follow a noun, save for indefinite particles, and interrogative and exclamative particles.
Interrogatives & negatives:
Adjectives must agree in number with the noun. They are either descriptive, comparative, or superlative in nature.
Interrogative sentences use interrogative particles and interrogative
Negative sentences use negative adverb la (law before a verb).
Also ú "bad, uneasy, hard". Both la, and ú cause
- Derdzinski, Ryszard, Summary of Sindarin Grammar, at http://www.elvish.org/gwaith/sindarin_intro.htm
- Fauskanger, Helge K., Sindarin the Noble Tongue, at http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/sindarin.htm
- -, proposed Sindarin Course, [avail. Online, but URL unknown at present]
- own notes