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Months before the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) first and last Pilgrimmage to Mecca, he realized he might not live to see next year. (He felt evidence of this was in the fact that the angel Gabriel pbuh went over the Quran twice with him during Ramadan to check for any mistakes in his memorization) As is custom, the pilgrims assembled near Mount Arafat to complete the last ritual of the pilgrimmage. On the Ninth Day of the Islamic month Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H. (632CE) in the 'Uranah valley of Mount Arafat' (in Mecca), he gave a sermon to his people after leading them in prayer.

This sermon, in Arabic, is known as the Khutbatul Wada.' It is mentioned in almost all books of hadith, and the thousands of witnesses to it have prompted scholars to certify its authenticity, according to both Sunni and Shia sources. This sermon is also quite popular among mosques and Muslim households, and it is not uncommon to see it written ornately and hung upon a wall. The lessons it teaches are just as applicable today as they were 1400 years ago, and it is often cited by Muslims with regards to race.

After praising, and thanking God he said:

"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.

O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib (his uncle) shall henceforth be waived...

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

O People, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.

Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an and my example, the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people".


When he finished his farewell speech, the following revelations come to him, the final verse of the Qur'an.
"...This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion..." (Quran 5:3).
Epilogue:

Soon after this sermon, his last in the mosque, Muhammad (pbuh) became so weak that he could not move. He then appointed Abu Bakr(ra), his right-hand man, to lead the prayers. He spent the rest of his illness in the apartment of his beloved wife A'ishah (ra). On the early morning of twelfth of Rabi' al-Awwal, three months after, the prophet?s fever abated and he went to the mosque with assitance. He sat on the right of Abu Bakr and completed the prayer while seated.

Hours later, he lost consciousness. His last words were "My Lord, grant me pardon" though some sources say "The prayer! The prayer!" and some say he tried to make some motion, as if to write something. There is also a hadith narrated by his wife, Ayesha, where she heard him tell the angel that he'd rather die and meet God than stay on Earth.He died in the evening of the twelfth of Rabi' al-Awwal (June 8, 632 C.E.) at the age of sixty-three, in the arms of his wife Ayesha.

The news of the Muhammad's death was so hard upon close companions and Muslims that some of them refused to believe that he had passed away. (At the close of his death, he looked youthful as if in his forties and his face always shown a great radiance). Upon hearing this, Abu Bakr (ra). who was later to become the first caliph, went to the mosque and delivered one of the noblest speeches:

"O People! If Muhammad is whom you worshipped, then know that he is dead. But if it is God you worshiped, then know that He does not die."

He then recited the following verse from the Qur'an, 3:144, which was revealed after the Battle of Uhud:

"Muhammad is no more than a Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will you then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude."
The Prophet was buried the next day at the same place where he died. The place of his burial was decided by his saying as related by Abu Bakr (ra): "Allah does not cause a prophet to die but in the place where he is to be buried."

Sermon taken from the english translation at http://islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0107-322
and http://www.soundvision.com/Info/hajj/lastsermon.asp

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