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These are some notes I have from doing a presentation on Rome during the Italian Renaissance, in terms of the popes. They are not complete or organized but they may be of some help for further reference:


1414-1418 Coucil of Constance
  • called to end Great Schism, elects Martin V

1417-1431 Martin V
1431-1447 Eugenius IV
1447-1455 Nicholas V
1455-1458 Calixtus III
1458-1464 Pius II
  • called for Crusade against Turks, failed
  • due to experiences in Germany, inspired church reform

1464-1471 Paul II
1471-1484 Sixtus IV
1484-1492 Innocent III 1492-1503 Alexander VI
  • from spanish arm of powerful Borgia family
  • 1494 French King Charles VIII invades Italy to vindicate his claim to Naples
  • formed alliance with Milan, Venice, and the Holy Roman emperor to drive French from Italy
  • son Cesare conquered much of northern Italy using strategy of getting close to those in power and then assasinating them, model for Machiavelli's "The Prince"
  • Alexander destroyed power of Roman families and formed alliance with Spain
  • added to University of Rome and Vatican city, commisioned Michelangelo to draw plans for St. Peter's
  • called for Year of Jubilee in 1500
1503-1513 Julius II
  • Main goal was restoration of papal states lost by Borgias (Alexander VI)
  • 1508 subjugated Perugia & Bologna
  • 1509 joined League of Cambrai with Milan, Spain, & Holy Roman Emperor to defeat Venice.
  • failed first attempt to drive French from Italy
  • cardinals defect to French king Louis XII causing schism, Julius counters by summoning Lateran Council
  • drove French from Italy with Swiss aid
  • commisioned architect Donato Bramante & artist Raphael to add to Vatican art/architechture, & Michelangelo to work on his tomb

1513-1521 Leo X
  • elected for pacifist nature
  • pope and head of Medicis- controlled papal states and Florence
  • stopped French march into Italy by alliance with Spain, lost to 2nd French attempt
  • make piece with French and agreed to Concordat of Bologna, granting French kings more power over the church.
  • 1517 German monk Martin Luther confronted Rome with 95 theses, Leo condemned and excommunicated Luther.
  • Leo underestimated impact of Lutheranism.
1523-1534 Clement VII
1534-1549 Paul III

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