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"Blue juice" is the name of the blue liquid used in chemical toilets, particularly in aircraft and "portaloo" style facilities. Generally, it is and should be used in any toilet system where the sewage is stored for subsequent disposal (as opposed to a normal toliet connected a sewage or septic tank system).

The primary purpose of blue juice is minimise the inherent sanitary and odour problems associated with storing raw sewage. Typically, blue juice is a sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution, which serves as a strong antiseptic.

The blue colour is the result of a dye added as safety measure, since bright blue tends not to be a colour associated with edible substances. This colouring is required by law in many jurisdictions, since blue juice (either with or without dissoved waste products) is poisonous.

Blue juice is a euphemism in veterinarian circles for the euthanasia solution administered to pets, live stock and research animals. This solution is commercially made with brilliant blue the food colouring. It contains this dye to prevent confusion with other injectable veterinary preparations.

There is a variation used for large animals such as horses with a high concentration of the Sodium pentobarbitone which is often coloured red, but the term "red juice" is not in common usage.

Further note:
As far as I know, the solution used for lethal injection as capital punishment, contains no dye whatsoever.

See Pentobarb 300 for more about this topic.

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