In proteins, disulfides are a covalent bond formed between to cysteines. Cysteine has a free sulfur and proton which can form a single bond with a neighboring cysteine, if they are within sufficient proximity. Whereas most interactions within proteins are noncovalent in nature, (e.g. hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals forces), the disulfide bond represents one of the few through space covalent interactions found in proteins. It is believed these contribute significantly to protein stability and often cysteines are found to be evolutionarily conserved in pairs, maintaining the interaction.

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