Polygynandry can be simply characterized as "free love." It is a pattern of mating behavior wherein an individual has multiple partners. Polygynandry is often found in colonies. The advantages of polygynandry are: 1) reduced competition among males for females; and 2) because the males do not know which offspring are theirs, the group's collective nature is maintained. Occasionally, a male may form a "consortship" with a female while she is in estrous, and other males will be excluded. Chimpanzees are the most thoroughly studied polygynandrous species.

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