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The following is a non-exhaustive list of prefixes in the English language which are used to indicate that the word is related to a specific language, or related to the region typically characterised by the use of that language. For example, the prefix anglo- signifies English or England, in the word "anglophone," meaning a person who speaks English, while the prefix franco- signifies French or France, in the equivalent word "francophone," meaning a person who speaks French.

  • aegypto- or egypto- relating to Egypt and the languages of ancient Egyptians, though generally not modern Masri.
  • afro- relating to Africa (outside Egypt) and languages found in Africa; we may note that Africa is an entire continent featuring hundreds of languages, and not a single territory with a single language. Prefixes in English generally predate extensive contact, either in colonial or migratory capacities, with territories outside western Europe, resulting in far less granular distinction between nations outside Europe.
  • anglo- relating to England and English.
  • brittano- or brythono- relating to Britain and British indigenous languages, as well as Breton, Brittany, and the Brythonic (P-Celtic) languages.
  • celto- relating to European indigenous languages in the Celtic language family, though most frequently used for the subcategory of Goedelic (Q-Celtic) languages, e.g. Gaeilge and GĂ idhlig. The prefix scoto- is also used for Scotland and its languages, and the prefix hiberno- is used for Ireland and its languages.
  • cymro-, cambro-, or cambri- relating to Wales and Welsh (formerly "Cambria" in Latin).
  • daco- or romano- relating to Romania and Romanian. Daco- has also been used for Denmark and Danish, because the Latin language confusingly referred to both Denmark and Romania as "Dacia" at different points in time, in Medieval Latin and ancient Rome, respectively.
  • dano- relating to Denmark, Danish, and also historically to other Scandinavian culture groups characterised as "Danes" during the Danelaw period in the history of Britain.
  • euro- relating to Europe and languages endemic to Europe.
  • fenno- or finno- relating to Finland and Finnish.
  • franco- relating to France and French; sometimes in reference to premodern Celtic tribes inhabiting the region now called France, the prefix gallo is also used.
  • germano- and teuto- relating to Germany and German.
  • greco- relating to Greece and Greek; the prefix helleno- is also used for this purpose. When the territory of Sparta is regarded separately from Greece, the prefix used for it is lacono- .
  • helveto - relating to Switzerland and Swiss, derived from the ancient Latin name for the Helvetii, a Celtic tribal confederation once inhabiting the Swiss Plateau.
  • hispano- relating to Spain and Spanish, and by extension, territories colonised by Spain;
  • indo- relating to India, languages found in India, and territories adjoining the Indian subcontinent, like Sri Lanka.
  • irano- and perso- related to Iran (known also as Persia) and languages of Iran, namely Farsi.
  • judeo- relating to Jews as an ethno-religious group, the Hebrew language, and territories occupied by ancient Hebrews or modern Jews.
  • luso- relating to Portugal and Portuguese, and less commonly to Brazil (colonised by Portugal), derived from Portugal's ancient name in Latin, Lusitania.
  • norvego- relating to Norway and Norwegian, as well as earlier languages like Old Norse and closely affiliated territories like Iceland.
  • polono- relating to Poland and Polish.
  • russo- relating to Russia and Russian.
  • sino- relating to China and Chinese.
  • sueco- relating to Sweden and Swedish, derived from Latin "Suecia," the name the ancient Romans gave to this territory.
  • thraco- and bulgaro- relating to Bulgaria, Bulgarian, and the ancient territory of Thrace, which was comprised of portions of modern Bulgaria as well as Greece and Turkey.
  • turco- or turko- relating to Turkey and Turkish.
  • zigano- or zingaro- relating to the Roma and Sinti people (those who have historically been branded "Gypsy") and their languages.

Iron Noder 2021, 29/30

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