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The last stage of the erosion cycle in a karst zone.

Previous cycles saw water infiltrating a massive limestone formation, dissolving calcium carbonate and making carbonic acid, which enlarged holes in the rock into caves. As time passed, the caves grew bigger and bigger, eventually linking with each other. At some point, the entire area was undermined and sinkholes began to form.  Perhaps several episodes of sea level rise and fall helped.

Eventually all that is left are the areas of the limestone formation which were less pervious to water than surrounding areas.  Sometimes these lie close together, forming conical hills called "cone karst".   In other places, fantastic towers of limestone poke up to 200-300 meters of flat alluvial valleys, or out of the sea .

Tower karst usually appears in subtropical and tropical areas, the best known areas of tower karst appear in southern China (the area around Guilin being especially picturesque) , but the terrain also appears in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines, Australia, Jamaica, Puerto Rico.    It is possible that Florida will look like this in a million years or so.

 
     _ww_         w_w
    / ww \       /ww |            _w_           www
    |ww w |      | w \          w|www\         /ww |w
   /  www |      |w ww|         /w ww|        |ww ww\
   | ww ww \    / www |   __    | www|        | wwww|
   | wwww w|   |wwwww \  |""\   |ww w\        |ww ww|
---|wwww w |---|  wwww |-|"" |-/ w ww |------/ww ww w\--------
  /   wwww \   | wWW Ww \/___\| ww w w |_____|ww www |
_W_WW__     |   ----_____|    |wWwwwWW  \  ~ / WwW Ww \_______
       \----      _WW_WW__     ---______|~ _/  WWW WWW |
WWW WW  |========| WWWWWW |      / ~       | WWWWWWWW   \ ~ ~
 WWWW   |        /WW WW W |\     |    ~    |_W_WWW_W_WWW|
   WWWW \  w    |  W W WWW|\\____/  ~  |/\ ~    ~      ~ ~ ~
 WWWWW   \      | WW WWW W\ \___  ~   _|_|_   ~    ~ ~    ~
WW W WWWW|      |  W WWWWWW|    \   ~ \___/~   _WWWW__W_ ~   ~
W WWW WW \ WW_W_WWW_ WWWWW |    / ~   ~    ~  / W WW WW \  ~
 WWWWW WW /  WW WW  |  #    \  /    ~   ~ ~   | W WWWWW |~   ~
_WW_WWW_W| WW WWW W |  WWWW  |/ ~    ~     ~ / WWWW WW W\  ~
         | WWW WW WW\       /

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