in Latin, words in the Vocative case are used to express direct address. They predominantly carry the same endings as the Nominative case.

For Example:
English: "come, o Julius!"
Latin: "veni, o Julie!"

English: "Hello, little boy."
Latin: "Salve, parve puer."

A dead giveaway (just as in greek) that a word is in the vocative case: it will usually be directly proceeded by an 'o'. (aptly translated "oh")...

In Latin, the Vocative case uses the endings:
      Sing  Plur
1Dec  -a    -ae
2Dec  -e    -i
3Dec  -*    -es
4Dec  -us   -us
5Dec  -es   -es

* - Third Declension singular Nouns can have almost any ending in the Vocative Case. You Just have to memorize them. Tough beans.

back to Latin...

Voc"a*tive (?), a. [L. vocativus, fr. vocare to call.]

Of or pertaining to calling; used in calling; specifically Gram., used in address; appellative; -- said of that case or form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective, in which a person or thing is addressed; as, Domine, O Lord.


© Webster 1913.

Voc"a*tive, n. [L. vocativus (sc. casus): cf. F. vocatif.] Gram.

The vocative case.


© Webster 1913.

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