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An abbreviation for analysis of variance. ANOVAs are like t-tests except potentially much more complicated. In psychology and I suspect in many other sciences, an ANOVA is typically used in the following manner:

ANOVA is nice because you can do multiple kinds of groupings and see the interaction of them. Consider the following hypothetical experiment:

  1. Group 1 was not fed cheese and not hit with a hammer.
  2. Group 2 was not fed cheese and was hit with a hammer.
  3. Group 3 was fed cheese and not hit with a hammer.
  4. Group 4 was fed cheese and was hit with a hammer.
Using a two-way ANOVA, you can determine not only the effects of being fed cheese on your outcome and being hit with a hammer, but whether there are any interactions of being fed cheese and being hit with a hammer that cannot be explained merely as the sum of the effects of being fed cheese and being hit with a hammer.