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A simple sentence is the most basic of all sentences, containing one and only one clause. A simple sentence will always have a subject (what the sentence is about) as well as a predicate (explaining what is happening to the subject). Beware though, that the simplest of sentences may have an understood subject. These generally take the form of a command with the understood subject being "you."

Run!

      |
(You) | Run
-------------
 sub. | pred.

So long as the sentence contains only one clause it may be much longer than this first example.

Susie, run!

          |
   Susie  | run
-----------------

Susie, run away from the lion!
          |
   Susie  | run
-----------------
             \
              \ away
             | \
             |  \  lion
           from  ---------
                      \
                       \ the
                        \

Susie, run away from the great, big, scary lion before he eats you!
          |
   Susie  |     run
-----------------------
            \         \
            .          \ away
             \         | \
             .         |  \         lion
             \      from  ---------------------
              .              \    \      \    \ 
               \before        \the \great \big \scary
                .              \    \      \    \
                 \
                  .        |
                   \   he  |  eats   |  you
                    --------------------------


Simple sentences, in the evolutionary chain of written communication, are a rung in the ladder above clauses which themselves are the parents of phrases. Additionally, simple sentences are often the first successful phrases a child will put together when learning language. Direct and poignant, simple sentences work admirably as summation or conclusion points; their overuse however may have an overall "simpleton" effect on your work.


For further edification, perhaps a perusal of clause to review where sentences come from is in order. Or rather we should forge ahead and learn about compound sentences...