The idea of giving employee
s. Examples ("vertical loading factors") include
The term originates from organization chart
s, where the vertical
axis usually represents increased control
. The opposite of vertical loading is naturally horizontal loading
, which involves giving the same person more tasks without increasing his control, and is not
The term was invented by American psychologist Frederick Herzberg
and repackaged under the buzzword empowerment in the 1990s.
back to organizational behavior
Buchanan, David and Andrzej Huczynski. Organizational Behaviour (3rd ed.), pp. 89-98.