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Abu Jafar Abdullah ibn Mohammed Al-Mansur (Arabic for the victorious), born in 712 in Humaymah, Syria, and died in 775 on his way to Mecca while performing Hajj. He was the second Abbasid Caliph, and founded Baghdad in 762. His 21 year reign lasted between 754 to 775.

Al-Mansur plotted for the assassination of Abu Muslim in 755, a general who led a victorious battle against the Ummayads during the third civil war while Abu Muslim served under Al-Mansur's brother, Al-Abbas. The motive of the murder was simply out of fear from Abu Muslim's rising popularity to become ruler.

Al-Mansur's claim to hold absolute religious and secular authority further alienated Shiites, who during Al-Abbas rule, wanted a Shiite to become Khalifa. Under Al-Mansur, literature and scholarly work in Islam began to manifest in full force.

In contrast to the suppressive Ummayds towards Persians and other groups, Abbasids had greater tolerance for Persians and others. When Al-Mansur ruled, roughly 8% of his citizens were Muslims, by the time of his death, the number doubled to 15%. He was succeded by his son, Al-Mahdi.

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