Biotechnology is the research and application of biology, microbiology, molecular biology or biochemistry for solving a problem, making a product or applying a industrial process.

For example, biotechnology is used industrially for producing pharmaceuticals, in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, food and feed production, wastewater treatment, beer brewing and production of chemicals.

Modern biotechnology usually involves recombinant or genetically modified organisms (GMO), usually bacteria or fungi but also insect cells or animal cells.

However, biotechnology started out using only naturally occuring organisms and many of the largest commercial applications still use whole cells or enzymes from naturally occuring bacteria or fungi.

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