1911-2002 Austrian born American Physicist

Along with Warren McCulloch, Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann and others were the originators of Cybernetics.

Early in his career, he participated in the Macy cybernetics gatherings which can be thought of as the beginnings of many fields, including:

He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Illinois, as a PhD in Physics. He there established the Department of Biophysics and the Biological Computer Laboratory. His work has been crucial to the development of Cybernetics and General Systems Theory. He may be considered as one of the founders of the theory of self-organization and of second-order cybernetics, the cybernetics of observing systems.

He wrote many influential articles in his career, here are some samples:

Related nodes:

Sources: http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/HvF.htm http://www.stanford.edu/group/SHR/4-2/text/varela.html Last Updated 04.30.04

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