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As an Appendix to How to cite your sources on Everything2, here is a minimal example of a bibliography file that we’ll call biblio.bib.

Please note that even if it’s called biblio.bib it’s just a plain text file so if you want to, you could just save this file as biblio.txt and then change the extension.


For advanced usage you can take a look at this cheatsheet for lots of additional uses of BibLaTeX. Or—if you dare, read the BibLaTeX documentation directly Kime, Wemheuer, and Lehman (2019)

Main types of entries

Note: The examples below do not necessarily represent any kind of affiliation, endorsement or agreement with the sources listed. I merely use them as an example of a BibLaTeX file format.

Although BibLaTeX accepts many types of works, my personal recommendation is to begin by using only the most basic entry types (like @book, @article, online) and learning the edge cases as needed.


An @article is a single piece appearing on a journal, magazine or newspaper. It has to «form a self-contained unit with its own title.»

  • Journal example: Shaikhina et al. (2019)
  • Magazine example: Wulf (1994)
  • Newspaper example: Laris (2020)
  • You can also cite a whole number of a periodical with @periodical and supplemental material from a periodical with @suppperiodical


A @book usually has a single author or co-authors that share credit for the book as a whole.

  • Book by one author example: Kahneman (2011)
  • @inbook is used for a self-contained part of a book with its own title. For example: Tolkien (2004) or Lovecraft (2016)
  • @mvbook is used for a multi-volume book.1 For example: Stephenson (2004)
  • @bookinbook is like @inbook used for works originally published as a stand-alone book. Usually for collected works of an author. For example: Borges (2019)
  • Supplemental material of a book can be cited under @suppbook

If you have a single volume with several authors (like an anthology), you’d use the type @collection. Usually, it doesn’t have a single author, but it does have an editor. Otherwise, it’s very similar to the @book type

  • Example: Loeb (2014)
  • Use @incollection To reference a single self-contained unit with a distinct author and title in a collection. Example: Prymus (2009)
  • To reference a multi-volume collection, use @mvcollection
  • To reference supplemental material in a collection, use @suppcollection

Conference proceedings

The published proceedings of a conference are published under @proceedings. It can be subdivided just like @book and @collection

  • Simple example: (Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 2014)
  • Multi volume, under @mvproceedings
  • A single article in proceedings: @inproceedings. for example: Finch, Martin, and Sebah (2010)

Works of reference

This refers to general works of reference like dictionaries or encyclopedias. The main type is @reference.

  • Main example: Jewell (2006)
  • Multi-volume work: @mvreference
  • Single article: @inreference. Example: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2020)

Other entry types

Other relatively uncommon types of works admitted in BibLaTeX are:

  • @manual
  • @report
  • @thesis
  • @patent
  • @online for inherently online sources
  • @booklet
  • @unpublished
  • @misc only if nothing else fits

Bibliography Source

The full BibLaTeX file can be found here


Borges, Jorge Luis. 2019. “Historia Universal de La Infamia.” In Cuentos Completos. Nueva York: Vintage Español, una división de Penguin Random House LLC.

Finch, Steven, Greg Martin, and Pascal Sebah. 2010. “Roots of Unity and Nullity Modulo n.” In Proceedings of the Americal Mathematical Society, 138:2729–43. 08. American Mathematical Society (AMS). https://doi.org/10.1090/s0002-9939-10-10341-4.

Jewell, Elizabeth. 2006. The Pocket Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus. Edited by Elizabeth Jewell. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus; Giroux. https://books.google.com/books?id=ZuKTvERuPG8C.

Kime, Philip, Moritz Wemheuer, and Philipp Lehman. 2019. “The Biblatex Package: Programmable Bibliographies and Citations.” December 1, 2019. http://mirrors.ctan.org/macros/latex/contrib/biblatex/doc/biblatex.pdf.

Laris, Michael. 2020. “Battered by Upheaval, Novelist Yu Lihua Told Raw Stories from a Speckled Blue Desk.” The Washington Post, May. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/battered-by-upheaval-novelist-yu-lihua-told-raw-stories-from-a-speckled-blue-desk/2020/05/14/e25fa370-9519-11ea-9f5e-56d8239bf9ad_story.html.

Loeb, Paul Rogat, ed. 2014. The Impossible Will Take a Little While: Perseverance and Hope in Troubled Times. Basic Books.

Lovecraft, Howard Phillips. 2016. “The Music of Erich Zann.” In The Complete Fiction of H. P. Lovecraft. e-artnow.

Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society. 2014. Vol. 142. 3. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society. https://www.ams.org/journals/proc/2014-142-03/home.html.

Prymus, Jylie. 2009. “Kefka, Nietzche, Foucault: Madness and Nihilism in Final Fantasy VI.” In Final Fantasy and Philosophy: The Ultimate Walkthrough. Blackwell Philosophy and Pop Culture. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Shaikhina, Torgyn, Dave Lowe, Sunil Daga, David Briggs, Robert Higgins, and Natasha Khovanova. 2019. “Decision Tree and Random Forest Models for Outcome Prediction in Antibody Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.” Biomedical Signal Processing and Control 52 (July): 456–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bspc.2017.01.012.

Stephenson, Neal. 2004. Criptonomicón. 1st ed. 3 vols. Barcelona: Byblos.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2020. “Battle of Puebla.” In Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Puebla.

Tolkien, J. R. R. 2004. “The Fellowship of the Ring.” In The Lord of the Rings. Vol. I. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. https://books.google.com/books?id=aWZzLPhY4o0C.

Wulf, Steve. 1994. “Err Jordan. Try as He Might, Michael Jordan Has Found Baseball Beyond His Grasp.” Sports Illustrated, nos. March 14, 1994 (March). https://vault.si.com/vault/1994/03/14/err-jordan-try-as-he-might-michael-jordan-has-found-baseball-beyong-his-grasp.

  1. I’m using my own edition of «Cryptonomicon» as an example, because here it was published as three volumes, instead of a massive single book.

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