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Born February 18, 1901 Died August 19, 1994 One of the most brilliant American scientists of all time. He is one of the few people ever to win 2 Nobel Prizes. He was originally an X-ray crystallographer, and solved the molecular strucures of many important biomolecules. His Nobel Prize in Chemistry was for discovering the cause of Sickle Cell Anemia, but he also did work on the overall structure of proteins, invented the hair perm (by solving the molecular structure of keratin), and advocated the use of vitamin supplements (particularly Vitamin C).

He was an outspoken advocate of banning open-air nuclear testing, and sought to educate the public on the dangers of radiation (which were relatively unknown at the time). He irritated the US government to such an extent that they suspended his passport, but eventually bowed to popular pressure and reinstated it in 1954 so he could travel to Stockholm for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his activism on the subject of nuclear weapons test bans.

Also see: Nobel Prizes: Peace Nobel Prizes: Chemistry

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