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A word coined on the analogy of Francophone and Anglophone, from the Roman name Lusitania of the province roughly corresponding to Portugal, plus Greek phônê 'voice'.

It refers to literature and music in the countries where Portuguese is spoken, but especially after the 1974 revolution brought freedom to Portugal's colonial empire, it is used of a political and cultural grouping of countries modelled on the English-language Commonwealth of Nations. The countries are Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and Sao Tome and Principe, and their organization is called the CPLP or Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. One summit meeting was held in 1991 and another in 2000. In June 2001 they launched a partnership for military cooperation.

Another organization is the AULP, the Association of Lusophone Universities, founded in Cape Verde in 1986. This also includes the Chinese special territory of Macao, until recently a Portuguese colony.

Both organizations are looking to give observer status or membership to East Timor, formerly Portuguese Timor.

There are ten million native speakers of Portuguese in Portugal, 140 million in Brazil, and a quarter of a million each in Portugal's autonomous Atlantic territories of the Azores and Madeira.

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