A baryon is one of the two types of hadrons, the other being the meson (particle). In 1964 Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig independantly theorized that hadrons are made of quarks. Modern research has found that a baryon is composed of three quarks or three anti-quarks (making an anti-baryon). There are 120 types of baryon. Examples: proton, anti-proton, lambda, neutron, omega...

A baryon is a particle that consists of three quarks (or antiquarks, in which case they form an antibaryon). Baryons form a subset of hadrons.

The following is a (growing) list of baryons. If you spot an error, feel free to /msg me. If you want to add some, /msg me too, rather than creating a new writeup.


  • All rest masses are in MeV/c2.
  • All of these particles have baryon number B=+1 and spin number S=+3/2.
  • "Makeup" refers to the constituent quarks (u=up, d=down, s=strange, c=charm).
  • An underlined symbol denotes an antiparticle, which is normally written with a bar over the symbol.

Proton (p)
Makeup: uud
Rest Mass: 938.3
Charge: +1
Common Decay Modes: none

Neutron (n)
Makeup: udd
Rest Mass: 939.6
Charge: 0
Common Decay Modes: n -> p + e- + νe

Lambda Zero0)
Makeup: uds
Rest Mass: 1115.6
Charge: +1
Common Decay Modes: Λ0 -> p + π-, Λ0 -> n + π0

Lambda Charmed0c)
Makeup: udc
Rest Mass: 2281
Charge: +1
Common Decay Modes: ?

Sigma Positive+)
Makeup: uus
Rest Mass: 1189.4
Charge: +1
Common Decay Modes: Σ+ -> p + π0, Σ+ -> n + π+

Sigma Zero0)
Makeup: uds
Rest Mass: 1192.5
Charge: 0
Common Decay Modes: Σ0 -> Λ0 + γ

Sigma Negative-)
Makeup: dds
Rest Mass: 1197.3
Charge: -1
Common Decay Modes: Σ- -> n + π-

Delta Positive+)
Makeup: uud (same as proton)
Rest Mass: ?
Charge: +1
Common Decay Modes: Δ+ -> p, Δ+ -> π0

Delta Zero0)
Makeup: udd (same as neutron)
Rest Mass: ?
Charge: 0
Common Decay Modes: Δ0 -> n, Δ0 -> π0

Delta Negative-)
Makeup: ddd
Rest Mass: ?
Charge: -1
Common Decay Modes: Δ- -> n, Δ- -> π-

Delta Double Positive++)
Makeup: uuu
Rest Mass: 1232
Charge: +2
Common Decay Modes: Δ++ -> p, Δ++ -> π+

Xi Zero0)
Makeup: uss
Rest Mass: 1315
Charge: 0
Common Decay Modes: Ξ0 -> Λ0 + π0

Xi Negative-)
Makeup: dss
Rest Mass: 1321
Charge: -1
Common Decay Modes: Ξ- -> Λ0 + π-

Omega Negative-)
Makeup: sss
Rest Mass: 1672
Charge: -1
Common Decay Modes: Ω- -> Ξ0 + π-, Ω- -> Λ0 + K-

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