Element/mineral/stone (properly an element but often referred to as one of the others) that is employed frequently, for Wiccan/spellcasting/new-age/insert your own cliché here "spells" or techniques relating to reaching higher planes of consciousness or most often astral projection. Its unique shape, basically a series of rhombuses interlocking in unusual patters and often if not usually resembling a stair-step pattern. This pattern symbolically represents some ascension to a higher plane. Probably *the* single most effective stone to use in astral projection techniques. While not as readily available as quartz or amethyst if you plan on projection or other consciousness-raising techniques, bismuth is well worth your time and effort to find. Not cheap but not outrageously expensive, $5 will buy you a piece large enough to use while between $12 and 20 will get a nice one. Do be careful as it is somewhat fragile, but for techniques, a bag of broken pieces, *from the same original piece* works just as well as the whole.

(From the German wismut) A hard, brittle, metallic chemical element that is grayish-white with a tinge of red, used chiefly in making alloys of low melting point and in medicine.

Symbol: Bi
Atomic number: 83
Atomic weight: 208.98038
Density (at room temperature and pressure): 9.747 g/cc
Melting point: 271.3°C
Boiling point: 1,560°C
Valence: +3, +5
Ground state electron configuration: [Xe]4f145d106s26p3

Symbol: Bi
Atomic Number: 83
Atomic Weight: 208.9804
Boiling Point: 1837 K
Melting Point: 544.59 K
Density at 300K: 9.75 g/cm3
Covalent radius: 1.46
Atomic radius: 1.63
Atomic volume: 21.3 cm3/mol
First ionization potental: 7.289 V
Specific heat capacity: 0.122 Jg-1K-1
Thermal conductivity: 7.87 Wm-1K-1
Electrical conductivity: 0.9*106Ω-1m-1
Heat of fusion: 11.0 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 179 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 2.02 (Pauling's)

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Bis"muth (?), n. [Ger. bismuth, wismuth: cf. F. bismuth.] Chem.

One of the elements; a metal of a reddish white color, crystallizing in rhombohedrons. It is somewhat harder than lead, and rather brittle; masses show broad cleavage surfaces when broken across. It melts at 507° Fahr., being easily fused in the flame of a candle. It is found in a native state, and as a constituent of some minerals. Specific gravity 9.8. Atomic weight 207.5. Symbol Bi.

⇒ Chemically, bismuth (with arsenic and antimony is intermediate between the metals and nonmetals; it is used in thermo-electric piles, and as an alloy with lead and tin in the fusible alloy or metal. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic substance known.

Bismuth glance, bismuth sulphide; bismuthinite. -- Bismuth ocher, a native bismuth oxide; bismite.


© Webster 1913.

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