The anti-alcohol movement that led to Prohibition in the U.S. Fueled by religious organizations during the Second Great Awakening, women's groups who felt that male drinking led to women and children left without a provider, and anti-immigrant feeling, the tempermance movement extended as far back as the 1840s, when married women pledged to "withdraw conjugal favors" if their husbands drank. But the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century saw a gradual buildup of temperance organizing in response to German, Irish, and Italian immigrants who brought in different drinking habits which bothered native-born Americans, and the increased economic power of saloons, taverns, brewers, and distillers.

Maine in 1851 was the first state to outlaw alcohol. Organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union (founded 1874) and the Anti-Saloon League (founded 1893) put more and more pressure on local and state governments until the 18th Amendment was passed to outlaw alcohol completely in 1920.

Barr, Andrew. Drink: A Social History of America. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1999.

In the Rider-Waite Tarot deck, the Major Arcanum numbered 14. Signifies balance, health, synthesis and synergy.

E2 Tarot Cards

Also known as Art. That name seems more evocative, to me, of what the card is really about.

Aleister Crowley's description:

My thoughts:

    This is what I am trying to do right now in my life -- bring things together, escape from the old, follow through on the fresh start I have made.

Your description/thoughts/experiences:

Tem"per*ance (?), n. [L. temperantia: cf. F. temp'erance. See Temper, v. t.]


Habitual moderation in regard to the indulgence of the natural appetites and passions; restrained or moderate indulgence; moderation; as, temperance in eating and drinking; temperance in the indulgence of joy or mirth; specifically, moderation, and sometimes abstinence, in respect to using intoxicating liquors.


Moderation of passion; patience; calmness; sedateness.

[R.] "A gentleman of all temperance."


He calmed his wrath with goodly temperance. Spenser.


State with regard to heat or cold; temperature.

[Obs.] "Tender and delicate temperance."


Temperance society, an association formed for the purpose of diminishing or stopping the use of alcoholic liquors as a beverage.


© Webster 1913.

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