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Following the analogy between memes and genes, a memetic mutation is a process by which one concept transforms into another.

Analogies themselves serve as an example:
In making an analogy, features of one concept are applied to another. This is analogous to a crossover mutation of DNA, where two strands of DNA each break into two pieces then each piece of one strand is joined to part of the other strand.

A particularly interesting instance of this is the early development of quantum mechanics. Shortly after the demonstration of the wave-particle duality of light (which had long been known to show wavelike properties), De Broglie questioned whether matter (which had been proven to exist in descrete atoms) might also act like a wave.

Of course, just like in biology a great many analogies aren't very helpful because the analogy breaks down. Thankfully, selective pressures work against most of those mixed-up notions we get.