Aspergillosis is a disease caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus which usually infects immunocompromised hosts, but can cause more mild disease in hosts who are immunocompetent. It is an infection of the lungs, with associated symptoms of fever, chest pain, and cough. The infection can spread (disseminate) to other body organs including the brain, skin, and bone. This organism can also cause allergic sinusitis, and asthma-type symptoms.

Aspergillus is ubiquitous in the everyday environment. It is found in soil, composting materials, household dust, building materials, houseplants, and can even colonize food and water. It is transmitted by inhaling the airborne spores, called "conidia". Transplant recipients, cancer patients, people taking high-dose steroids, and rarely, HIV-infected patients are at high risk for this infection.

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