The Latin language divided the world into color swatches differently from the English language; Latin is usually more analytical than English, and the color definition makes no difference, as sometimes it distinguishes colors based on their overall intensity.

White can be either albus or candidus. Albus is a dull white, like chalk on a chalkboard; candidus is a very bright white, like a white dress or - in biblical context - a pure soul. Political candidates wore candidae togas in order to stand out in a crowd - thence the word. Canus is also used as an even duller version of albus, like the hair of an old man.

The same difference applies for black: here we have ater and niger. Ater is a dull, shadowy black; while niger is a shiny black, like the soul of a stubborn sinner. Fuscus is a black that's almost grey or a very dark grey.

Blue can be caeruleus or caesius: caeruleus is light blue, the color of the sky, caesius is a dull blue like steel or a man's eyes.

This distinction is lost in Italian and - as far as I know - in Spanish.

More on the topic of colors in ancient languages can be found in the excellent colour terms in language node.

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