Kumusta? -- How are you? This is the usual Filipino greeting. Respond by saying "mabuti."

Magandang umaga/hapon/gabi. -- Good morning/afternoon/evening.

Mabuhay! -- Long live! This is used as a greeting or as a cheer. Probably related to the spanish "viva".

Paalam -- goodbye. Paalam is a bit formal though, sometimes used for dramatic effect. Normally people just say "sige", the meaning of which is closer to "alright then".

Anong pangalan mo? -- What is your name? Some people say "Sino ka?" (who are you) but it is generally considered impolite.

Ang pangalan ko ay X. -- My name is X. You can also say "Ako si X" -- I am X.

Note on Filipino vowels. There is only one way to pronounce Filipino vowels, and they are "short" ie "a" should be pronounced as in "can" not "cane". U though, is closer to "oo" than the short u.
Of course, these are the most common *nice" words that you'll hear from a nice filipino. But what if you encounter a rude one and gives you all the shitty words you can get in a lifetime? Here's a short guide:

Putang ina mo- (puta= prostitute), (ina= mother), (mo= your). So it's like "Your mom is a slut".

Buwa ka ng ina mo- (buwa= smelly female secretion), (ka= you), (ng= of), (ina= mother),(mo= you). So it is like "You're a smelly (or stinking) secretion of your mother".

Kantutan tayo- (kantutan= sexual intercourse), (tayo= us). English translation= "Let's have sex."

Tanga/tungak/tange- Stupid/idiot... the likes.

Mukha kang tite- (Mukha- direct translation is face but for this instance it is used as "you look like..."), (kang/ka= you), (tite= penis). So this goes like "You look like a penis". The word tite can be also replace by the word puke, meaning vagina.

Jakulin mo ako- (Jakol/Jakulin- masturabate/to masturbate), (mo= you), (ako= me/I). This phrase goes like "Masturbate me".

That's all.

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