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Cynoscephalae (now Khalkodhónion hills) was the scene of two battles. The first was between Alexander of Pherae and Pelopidas. Pelopidas won the battle, but died in the process. The second battle was between the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus and King Phillip V of Macedonia.

During the Second Punic war (against Hannibal) the Macedonians had aligned themselves with Carthage. Macedonia had continued to grow in power to the extent that its neighbours asked Rome to intercede. In 197 BC the two titans clashed. At first, fog prevented either side from clearly seeing each other, so the beginning of the battle was small skirmishes involving scouting parties. When the fog lifted both sides formed up for battle and engaged. Skirmishers and light infantry clashed on the ridge, the Macedonians having the upper hand until Roman reinforcements arrived and pushed the Macedonians back. The Romans retreated when Phillip's cavalry and mercenaries arrived. Flamininus' left repulses the Macedonian light infantry, and both sides' light infantry retires behind their respective lines. Both sides then re-organise their armies.

Phillip orders his phalanx to double depth in order to allow his left wing room to move up. Phillip has the high ground and orders his men to advance. Phillip's right dominates the romans, but his left is broken up by the uneven terrain. Roman Cavalry routs the left, then swings around and engages the phalanx. The Romans win.

This battle is of importance because it marks the end of the 200 year domination of the phalanx, replacing it with more flexible and mobile infantry troops.

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