In an electrochemical cell, the quantities of a substance produced or consumed and the electrodes are proportional to the amount of electrical charge passed through the cell; for a given amount of electrical charge, the quantity of a substance produced or consumed at an electrode is proportional to its molar mass divided by the number of moles of electrone required to produce or consume one mole of the substance.

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction is used to calculate the EMF (electromotive force) that will be generated by the movement of a conductor through a magnetic field.

It states that ε, the induced EMF, is equal to


where Φ is the amount of magnetic flux linkage in the field, and t is time.

Δ, delta, means change, so the equation states that the magnitude of the induced EMF is equal to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage.

It is significant that the magnitude of the EMF does not depend directly on how strong the magnetic field is, but on how quickly the level of flux surrounding the conductor is changing.

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