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The First Khandhaka Sections 21–25
Admission to the Order of Bhikkhus

The First Khandhaka is the first part of the Mahavagga.
The Mahavagga is the first part of the Khandhaka.
The Khandhaka is the second part of the Vinaya Pitaka ("Basket of Discipline").
The Vinaya Pitaka is the first part of the Tipitaka ("Three Baskets"), a.k.a. the Pali Canon.
The Tipitaka is the major religious text of Theravada Buddhism.

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The First Khandhaka (Pali for "Expositions") is quite a long piece (the longest of the four Khandhakas in the Mahavagga), divided into seventy-nine parts, containing stories concerning the origin of the rules of the Patimokkha by giving an account of what the Buddha did following his enlightenment. This excerpt contains the institution of religious teachers and students, that the learning of the Dhamma not be forgotten and the students not be unruly. It starts with the Buddha's first sermon.

The text was translated by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg in 1881; the translation is in the public domain. It was taken from http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe13/index.htm. Text in [square brackets] (and all pipelinks) was added and does not appear in the translation; text in (parentheses) does appear in the translation.


21

1 And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Uruvelâ as long as he thought fit, went forth to Gayâsîsa [the mountain of Brahmâyoni near Gayâ], accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been Gatilas before. There near Gayâ, at Gayâsîsa, the Blessed One dwelt together with those thousand Bhikkhus.

2 There the Blessed One thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'Everything, O Bhikkhus, is burning. And how, O Bhikkhus, is everything burning?

'The eye, O Bhikkhus, is burning; visible things are burning; the mental impressions based on the eye are burning; the contact of the eye (with visible things) is burning; the sensation produced by the contact of the eye (with visible things), be it pleasant, be it painful, be it neither pleasant nor painful, that also is burning. With what fire is it burning? I declare unto you that it is burning with the fire of lust, with the fire of anger, with the fire of ignorance; it is burning with (the anxieties of) birth, decay, death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and despair.

3 'The ear is burning, sounds are burning, &c. [as in 1st Khandhaka 21:2] . . . . The nose is burning, odours are burning, &c. . . . . The tongue is burning, tastes are burning, &c. . . . . The body is burning, objects of contact are burning, &c. . . . . The mind is burning, thoughts are burning, &c. . . . .

4 'Considering this, O Bhikkhus, a disciple learned (in the scriptures), walking in the Noble Path, becomes weary of the eye, weary of visible things, weary of the mental impressions based on the eye, weary of the contact of the eye (with visible things), weary also of the sensation produced by the contact of the eye (with visible things), be it pleasant, be it painful, be it neither pleasant nor painful. He becomes weary of the ear (&c. . . . . , down to . . . . [end of 1st Khandhaka 21:3]). Becoming weary of all that, he divests himself of passion; by absence of passion he is made free; when he is free, he becomes aware that he is free; and he realises that re-birth is exhausted; that holiness is completed; that duty is fulfilled; and that there is no further return to this world.'

When this exposition was propounded, the minds of those thousand Bhikkhus became free from attachment to the world, and were released from the Âsavas.

Here ends the sermon on 'The Burning.'

End of the third Bhânavâra concerning the Wonders done at Uruvelâ.

22

1 And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Gayâsisa as long as he thought fit, went forth to Râgaha, accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been Gatilas before. And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Râgagaha. There the Blessed One dwelt near Râgagaha, in the Latthivana pleasure garden, near the sacred shrine of Supatittha.

2 Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra heard: 'The Samana Gotama Sakyaputta, an ascetic of the Sakya tribe, has just arrived at Râgagaha and is staying near Râgagaha, in the Latthivana pleasure garden, near the sacred shrine of Supatittha. Of Him the blessed Gotama such a glorious fame is spread abroad: "Truly he is the blessed, holy, absolute Sambuddha, endowed with knowledge and conduct, the most happy One, who understands all worlds, the highest One, who guides men as a driver curbs a bullock, the teacher of gods and men, the blessed Buddha. He makes known the Truth, which he has understood himself and seen face to face, to this world system with its devas, its Mâras, and its Brahmâs; to all beings, Samanas and Brâhmanas, gods and men; he preaches that Truth (Dhamma) which is glorious in the beginning, glorious in the middle, glorious at the end, in the spirit and in the letter; he proclaims a consummate, perfect, and pure life." It is good to obtain the sight of holy men (Arahats) like that.'

3 And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, surrounded by twelve myriads of Magadha Brâhmanas and householders, went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. And of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brâhmanas and householders some also respectfully saluted the Blessed One and sat down near him; some exchanged greeting with the Blessed One, having exchanged with him greeting and complaisant words, they sat down near him; some bent their clasped hands towards the Blessed One and sat down near him; some shouted out their name and their family name before the Blessed One and sat down near him; some silently sat down near him.

4 Now those twelve myriads of Magadha Brâhmanas and householders thought: 'How now is this? has the great Samana placed himself under the spiritual direction of Uruvelâ Kassapa, or has Uruvelâ Kassapa placed himself under the spiritual direction of the great Samana?'

And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind the reflection which had arisen in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brâhmanas and householders, addressed the venerable Uruvelâ Kassapa in this stanza: 'What knowledge have you gained, O inhabitant of Uruvelâ, that has induced you, who were renowned for your penances, to forsake your sacred fire? I ask you, Kassapa, this question: How is it that your fire sacrifice has become deserted?'

(Kassapa replied): 'It is visible things and sounds, and also tastes, pleasures and woman that the sacrifices speak of; because I understood that whatever belongs to existence3 is filth, therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and offerings [the Vedas distinguish between small sacrifices (guhotara, translated into "offering") and great sacrifices (yagataya, translated into "sacrifice")].'

5 'But if your mind, Kassapa (said the Blessed One), found there no more delight,—either in visible things, or sounds, or tastes,—what is it in the world of men or gods in which your mind, Kassapa, now finds delight? Tell me that.'

(Kassapa replied): 'I have seen the state of peace (i.e. Nirvâna) in which the basis of existence (upadhi) and the obstacles to perfection (kiñkana) have ceased, which is free from attachment to sensual existence, which cannot pass over into another state, which cannot be led to another state; therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and offerings.'

6 Then the venerable Uruvelâ Kassapa rose from his seat, adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, prostrated himself, inclining his head to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'My teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One, I am his pupil; my teacher, Lord, is the Blessed One, I am his pupil.' Then those twelve myriads of Magadha Brâhmanas and householders understood: 'Uruvelâ Kassapa has placed himself under the spiritual direction of the great Samana.'

7, 8 And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind the reflection that had arisen in the minds of those twelve myriads of Magadha Brâhmanas and householders, preached to them in due course (&c., as in [[First Khandhaka 6-10|1st Khandhaka 7:5, 6], down to:). Just as a clean cloth free from black specks properly takes the dye, thus eleven myriads of those Magadha Brâhmanas and householders with Bimbisâra at their head, while sitting there, obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.' One myriad announced their having become lay-pupils.

9 Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, having seen the Truth (&c. . . . . down to) dependent on nobody else for the knowledge of the Teacher's doctrine, said to the Blessed One: 'In former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I entertained five wishes; these are fulfilled now. In former days, Lord, when I was a prince, I wished: "O that I might be inaugurated as king." This was my first wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. "And might then the holy, absolute Sambuddha come into my kingdom." This was my second wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now.

10 '"And might I pay my respects to Him, the Blessed One." This was my third wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. "And might He the Blessed One preach his doctrine (Dhamma) to me." This was my fourth wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. "And might I understand His, the Blessed One's doctrine." This was my fifth wish, Lord; this is fulfilled now. These were the five wishes, Lord, which I entertalned in former days when I was a prince; these are fulfilled now.

11 'Glorious, Lord! (&c., as in [1st Khandhaka 7:10], down to:) who has taken his refuge in Him. And might the Blessed One, Lord, consent to take his meal with me to-morrow together with the fraternity of Bhikkhus.'

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining silent.

12 Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra, when he understood that the Blessed One had accepted his invitation, rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and, passing round him with his right side towards him, went away. And when the night had elapsed, the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra ordered excellent food, both hard and soft, to be prepared, and had dinner-time announced to the Blessed One in the words: 'It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.' And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his under-robes, took his alms-bowl, and with his kîvara on entered the city of Râgagaha accompanied by a great number of Bhikkhus, by one thousand Bhikkhus who all had been Gatilas before.

13 At that time Sakka the king of the devas, assuming the appearance of a young Brâhman, walked in front of the Bhikkhu fraternity with Buddha at its head, singing the following stanzas: 'The self-controlled One with the self-controlled, with the former Gatilas, the released One with the released, the Blessed One, gold-coloured like an ornament of singî gold, has entered Râgagaha.

'The emancipated One with the emancipated, with the former Gatilas, &c.

'He who has crossed (the ocean of passion) with them who have crossed (it), with the former Gatilas, the released One with the released, the Blessed One, gold-coloured like an ornament of singî gold, has entered Râgagaha.

'He who is possessed of the ten Noble States and of the ten Powers, who understands the ten Paths of Kamma and possesses the ten (attributes of Arahatship), the Blessed One, surrounded by ten hundred of followers, has entered Râgagaha.'

14 The people when they saw Sakka the king of the devas, said: 'This youth indeed is handsome; this youth indeed has a lovely appearance; this youth indeed is pleasing. Whose attendant may this youth be?'

When they talked thus, Sakka the king of the devas addressed those people in this stanza: 'He who is wise, entirely self-controlled, the unrivalled Buddha, the Arahat, the most happy upon earth: his attendant am I.'

15 And the Blessed One went to the palace of the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra. Having gone there, he sat down with the Bhikkhus who followed him, on seats laid out for them. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra with his own hands served and offered excellent food, both hard and soft, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head; and when the Blessed One had finished his meal and cleansed his bowl and his hands, he sat down near him.

16 Sitting near him the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra thought: 'Where may I find a place for the Blessed One to live in, not too far from the town and not too near, suitable for going and coming, easily accessible for all people who want (to see him), by day not too crowded, at night not exposed to much noise and alarm, clean of the smell of people, hidden from men, well fitted for a retired life?'

17 And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra thought: 'There is the Veluvana, my pleasure garden, which is not too far from the town and not too near, suitable for going and coming, . . . . (&c., down to a retired life). What if I were to make an offering of the Veluvana pleasure garden to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head?'

18 And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra took a golden vessel (with water in it, to be poured over the Buddha's hand); and dedicated (the garden) to the Blessed One (by saying), 'I give up this Veluvana pleasure garden, Lord, to the fraternity of Bhikkhus with the Buddha at its head.' The Blessed One accepted the ârâma (park). Then the Blessed One, after having taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisâra by religious discourse, rose from his seat and went away.

And in consequence of this event the Blessed One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'I allow you, O Bhikkhus, to receive the donation of an ârâma (a park).'

23

1 At that time Sañgaya, a paribbâgaka (wandering ascetic), resided at Râgagaha with a great retinue of paribbâgakas, with two hundred and fifty paribbâgakas. At that time Sâriputta and Moggallâna (two young Brâhmanas) led a religious life as followers of Sañgaya the paribbâgaka; these had given their word to each other: 'He who first attains to the immortal (amata, i.e. Nirvâna) shall tell the other one.'

2 Now one day the venerable Assagi in the forenoon, having put on his under-robes, and having taken his alms-bowl, and with his kîvara on, entered the city of Râgagaha for alms; his walking, turning back, regarding, looking, drawing (his arms) back, and stretching (them) out was decorous; he turned his eyes to the ground, and was dignified in deportment. Now the paribbâgaka Sâriputta saw the venerable Assagi, who went through Râgagaha for alms, whose walking, &c., was decorous, who kept his eyes on the ground, and was dignified in deportment. Seeing him he thought: 'Indeed this person is one of those Bhikkhus who are the worthy ones (Arahats) in the world, or who have entered the path of Arahatship. What if I were to approach this Bhikkhu and to ask him: "In whose name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess?" '

3 Now the paribbâgaka Sâriputta thought: 'This is not the time to ask this Bhikkhu; he has entered the interior yard of a house, walking for alms. What if I were to follow this Bhikkhu step by step, according to the course recognised by those who want something.'

And the venerable Assagi, having finished his alms-pilgrimage through Râgagaha, went back with the food he had received. Then the paribbâgaka Sâriputta went to the place where the venerable Assagi was; having approached him, he exchanged greeting with the venerable Assagi; having exchanged with him greeting and complaisant words, he stationed himself at his side; standing at his side the paribbâgaka Sâriputta said to the venerable Assagi: 'Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. In whose name, friend, have you retired from the world? Who is your teacher? Whose doctrine do you profess?' [these are the same words spoken by Upaka in 1st Khandhaka 6:7]

4 (Assagi replied): 'There is, friend, the great Samana Sakyaputta, an ascetic of the Sakya tribe; in His, the Blessed One's, name have I retired from the world; He, the Blessed One, is my teacher; and His, the Blessed One's, doctrine do I profess.'

'And what is the doctrine, Sir, which your teacher holds, and preaches to you?'

'I am only a young disciple, friend; I have but recently received the ordination; and I have newly adopted this doctrine and discipline. I cannot explain to you the doctrine in detail; but I will tell you in short what it means.'

Then the paribbâgaka Sâriputta said to the venerable Assagi: 'Well, friend, tell me much or little as you like, but be sure to tell me the spirit (of the doctrine); I want but the spirit; why do you make so much of the letter?'

5 Then the venerable Assagi pronounced to the paribbâgaka Sâriputta the following text of the Dhamma: 'Of all objects which proceed from a cause, the Tathâgata has explained the cause, and He has explained their cessation also; this is the doctrine of the 'great Samana.'

And the paribbâgaka 'Sâriputta after having heard this text obtained the pure and spotless Eye of the Truth (that is, the following knowledge): 'Whatsoever is subject to the condition of origination is subject also to the condition of cessation.' (And he said): 'If this alone be the Doctrine (the Dhamma), now you have reached up to the state where all sorrow ceases (i.e. Nirvâna), (the state) which has remained unseen through many myriads of Kappas (world-ages) of the past.'

6 Then the paribbâgaka Sâriputta went to the place where the paribbâgaka Moggallâna was. And the paribbâgaka Moggallâna saw the paribbâgaka Sâriputta coming from afar; seeing him he said to the paribbâgaka Sâriputta: 'Your countenance, friend, is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. Have you then really reached the immortal, friend?'

'Yes, friend, I have attained to the immortal.'

'And how, friend, have you done so?'

7–9 'I saw, friend, the Bhikkhu Assagi who went through Râgagaha for alms (&c., down to:); "But I will tell you in short what it means."

' "Tell me much or little as you like, but be sure to tell me the spirit (of the doctrine); I want but the spirit; why do you make so much of the letter?"

10 'Then, friend, the Bhikkhu Assagi pronounced the following Dhamma sentence: "Of all objects which proceed from a cause, the Tathâgata has explained the cause, and He has explained their cessation also; this is the doctrine of the great Samana." '

And the paribbâgaka Moggallâna, after having heard (&c., as in [1st Khandhaka 23:5], down to the end).

24

1 Then the paribbâgaka Moggallâna said to the paribbâgaka Sâriputta: 'Let us go, friend, and join the Blessed One; that He, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.'

(Sâriputta replied): 'It is on our account, friend; that these two hundred and fifty paribbâgakas live here (as followers of Sañgaya), and it is we whom they regard; let us first inform them also of our intention; then they may do what they think fit.'

Then Sâriputta and Moggallâna went to the place where those paribbâgakas were; having approached them, they said to the paribbâgakas: 'Friends, we are going to join the Blessed One; that He, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.'

(The paribbâgakas replied): 'It is on your account, Sirs, that we live here, and it is you whom we regard; if you, Sirs, are about to place yourselves under the spiritual direction of the great Samana, we all will place ourselves also under the spiritual direction of the great Samana.'

2 Then Sâriputta and Moggallâna went to the place where the paribbâgaka Sañgaya was; having approached him, they said to the paribbâgaka Sañgaya: 'Friend, we are going to join the Blessed One; that He, the Blessed One, may be our teacher.'

(Sañgaya replied): 'Nay, friends, do not go; let us all three share in the leadership of this body (of disciples).'

And a second time Sâriputta and Moggallâna said, &c. And a third time Sâriputta and Moggallâna said, &c. (And a third time he replied): 'Nay, friends, do not go; let us all three share in the leadership of this body (of disciples).'

3 But Sâriputta and Moggallâna took with them those two hundred and fifty paribbâgakas and went to the Veluvana. But the paribbâgaka Sañgaya began, on the spot, to vomit hot blood from his mouth. [later Burmese and Chinese translations add that he also died, but this is not in the original Pali text.]

And the Blessed One saw them, Sâriputta and Moggallâna, coming from afar; on seeing them he thus addressed the Bhikkhus: 'There, O Bhikkhus, two companions arrive, Kolita and Upatissa [Sâariputta]; these will be a pair of (true) pupils, a most distinguished, auspicious pair.

When (Sâriputta and Moggallâna), who had reached emancipation in the perfect destruction of the substrata (of existence), which is a profound subject accessible only to knowledge, came to the Veluvana, the Teacher, who saw them, foretold about them: 'These two companions who are now coming—Kolita and Upatissa—these will be a pair of (true) pupils, a most distinguished, auspicious pair.'

4 Then Sâriputta and Moggallâna went to the place where the Blessed One was; having approached him, they prostrated thernselves, inclining their heads to the feet of the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One: 'Lord, let us receive the pabbaggâ and upasampadâ ordinations from the Blessed One.'

'Come, O Bhikkhus,' said the Blessed One, 'well taught is the doctrine; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering.' Thus these venerable persons received the upasampadâ ordination.

5 At that time many distinguished young Magadha noblemen led a religious life under the direction of the Blessed One. The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'The Samana Gotama causes fathers to beget no sons; the Samana Gotama causes wives to become widows; the Samana Gotama causes families to become extinct. Now he has ordained one thousand Gatilas, and he has ordained these two hundred and fifty paribbâgakas who were followers of Sañgaya; and these many distingtiished young Magadha noblemen are now leading a religious life under the direction of the Samana Gotama.' And moreover, when they saw the Bhikkhus, they reviled them in the following stanza: 'The great Samana has come to Giribbaga (i.e. Râgagaha) of the Magadha people, leading with him in all the followers of Sañgaya; who will be the next to be led by him?'

6 Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had hecome angry; these Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One. (He replied): 'This noise, O Bhikkhus, will not last long; it will last only seven days; after seven days it will he over. And if they revile you, O Bhikkhus, in this stanza: "The great Samana has come, &c.," you should reply to the revilers in the following stanza: "It is by means of the true doctrine that the great heroes, the Tathâgatas, lead men. Who will murmur at the wise, who lead men by the power of the Truth?" '

7 At that time the people, when seeing the Bhikkhus, reviled them in the following stanza: 'The great Samana has come, &c.' Then the Bhikkhus replied to the revilers in the following stanza: 'It is by means of the true doctrine, &c.'

Then the people understood: 'It is by truth, and not by wrong, that the Sakyaputtiya Samanas lead men;' and thus that noise lasted only seven days, and after seven days it was over.

Here ends the narration of the ordination of Sâriputta and Moggallâna.

End of the fourth Bhânavâra.

25

1 At that time some Bhikkhus, as they had no upagghâyas (preceptors) and received no exhortation and instruction, went on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments (or, wearing their under and upper garments improperly), and in an improper attire. While people were eating, they held out their alms-bowls in which were leavings of food, over the hard food (which the people were eating), and held them out over soft food, and held them out over savoury food, and held them out over drinks. They asked for soup and boiled rice themselves, and ate it; in the dining halls they made a great and loud noise.

2 The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry (saying), 'How can the Sakyaputtiya Samanas go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments, . . . . (&c., as in [1st Khandhaka 25:1], down to drinks)? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls? They behave like Brâhmanas at the dinners given to them.'

3 Some Bhikkhus heard those people that were annoyed, murmured, and had become angry. Those Bhikkhus who were moderate, frugal, modest, conscientious, anxious for training, were annoyed, murmured, and became angry: 'How can the Bhikkhus go on their rounds for alms wearing improper under and upper garments, &c.? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls?'

4 These Bhikkhus told this thing to the Blessed One.

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, having ordered the fraternity of Bhikkhus to assemble, questioned the Bhikkhus: 'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, that some Bhikkhus go on their rounds, . . . . (&c., down to), that they make a great and loud noise in the dining halls?'

'It is true, Lord.'

5 Then the Blessed Buddha rebuked those Bhikkhus: 'It is improper, O Bhikkhus, what these foolish persons are doing, it is unbecoming, indecent, unworthy of Samanas, unallowable, and to be avoided. How can these foolish persons, O Bhikkhus, go on their rounds, &c.? How can they make so great and loud a noise in the dining halls? This will not do, O Bhikkhus, for converting the unconverted, and for augmenting the number of the converted; but it will result, O Bhikkhus, in the unconverted being repulsed (from the faith), and in many of the converted being estranged.'

6 And the Blessed One rebuked those Bhikkhus in many ways, spoke against unfrugality, ill-nature, immoderation, insatiableness, delighting in society, and indolence; spoke in many ways in praise of frugality, good-nature, of the moderate, contented, who have eradicated (sin), who have shaken off (sin), of the gracious, of the reverent, and of the energetic. And having delivered before the Bhikkhus a religious discourse in accordance to, and in conformity with these subjects, he thus addressed the Bhikkhus:

'I prescribe, O Bhikkhus, (that young Bhikkhus choose) an upagghâya (or preceptor).

'The upagghâya, O Bhikkhus, ought to consider the saddhivihârika (i.e. pupil) as a son; the saddhivihârika ought to consider the upagghâya as a father. Thus these two, united by mutual reverence, confidence, and communion of life, will progress, advance, and reach a high stage in this doctrine and discipline.

7 'And let them choose, O Bhikkhus, an upagghâya in this way: Let him (who is going to choose an upagghâya) adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, salute the feet (of the intended upagghâya), sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, and say: "Venerable Sir, be my upagghâya; venerable Sir, be my upagghâya; venerable Sir, be my upagghâya." (If the other answer): "Well," or, "Certainly," or, "Good," or, "All right," or, "Carry on (your work) with friendliness (towards me)," or should he express this by gesture (lit. "by his body"), or by word, or by gesture and word, then the upagghâya has been chosen. If he does not express this by gesture, nor by word, nor by gesture and word, the upagghâya has not been chosen.

8 'The saddhivihârika, O Bhikkhus, ought to observe a strict conduct towards his upagghâya. And these are the rules for his conduct: Let him arise betimes, and having taken off his shoes and adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, let him give (to the upagghâya) the teeth-cleanser and water to rinse his mouth with. Then let him prepare a seat (for the upagghâya). If there is rice-milk, let him rinse the jug and offer the rice-milk (to the upagghâya). When he has drunk it, let him give water (to the upagghâya), take the jug, hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) rubbing, and put it away. When the upagghâya has risen, let him take away the seat. If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

9 'If the upagghâya wishes to go into the village, let (the saddhivihârika) give (to the upagghâya) his under garment, take (from him) his second under garment (i.e. his house-dress ?), give him his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon each other and give them (to the upagghâya), rinse the alms-bowl, and give it him with some water in it. If the upagghâya wishes (to go with) an attendant Bhikkhu, let him put on his under garment so as to conceal the three circles (viz. the navel and the two knees) and as to cover the body all around; then let him put on his girdle, lay the two upper garments upon each other and put them on, tie the knots, take his alms-bowl, after having it rinsed, and follow the upagghâya as his attendant. Let him not go too far (from the upagghâya) nor too near. Let him take (from the upagghâya) what has been put into his alms-bowl.

10 'When the upagghâya speaks, let (the saddhivihârika) not interrupt him. If the upagghâya is in danger of committing an offence by the words he says, let (the saddhivihârika) keep him back. When (the upagghâya) turns back (from his alms-pilgrimage), let the saddhivihârika go back (to the Vihâra) before (the upagghâya), prepares seat, get water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel; then let him go to meet the upagghâya, take his bowl and his robe, give him his second under garment (his house-dress ?), and take his under garment. If the robe (of the upagghâya) is wet with perspiration, let him dry it a while in a hot place, but let him not leave the robe in a hot place. Let him fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, let him fold it up so as to leave (every day) four inches (more than the day before) hanging over at the corners, in order that no fold may arise in the middle of it. Let him the girdle. [even Buddhaghosa's interpretation doesn't know what this sentence is supposed to be, leaving the note, "We do not venture to offer any conjectures as to the meaning of this passage."] If there is any food received in the alms-bowl, and the upagghâya desires to eat it, let him give water (to the upagghâya) and then offer him the food.

11 'Let him offer to the upagghâya (water) to drink. When the upagghâya has finished his meal, let (the saddhivihârika) give him water, take his alms-bowl, hold it down, rinse it properly without (damaging it by) rubbing, pour the water out, and dry (the bowl) a while in some hot place, but let him not leave the bowl in the hot place. Let him put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts away the alms-bowl, let him do so holding the alms-bowl with one hand, and first feeling with the other hand under the bed or under the chair (where he is going to put the bowl), and let him not put the bowl on the bare ground. When he hangs up the robe, let him take the robe with one hand and stroke with the other hand along the bambu peg or rope on which the robe is to be hung up, and hang up the robe so that the border is turned away from him (and turned to the wall), and the fold is turned towards him. When the upagghâya has risen, let him take away the seat and put away the water for the washing of the feet, the foot-stool, and the towel. If the place is dirty, let him sweep the place.

12 'If the upagghâya wishes to bathe, let him prepare a bath. If he wants cold water, let him get cold water; if he wants hot water, let him get hot water. If the upagghâya wishes to go to the gantâghara [a hot bath], let (the saddhivihârika) knead the powder, moisten the clay, take up the chair belonging to the gantâghara, follow the upagghâya from behind, give him the chair, take his robe and put it aside, give him the powder and the clay. If he is able, let him also enter the gantâghara. When he is going to enter the gantâghara, let him besmear his face with clay, cover himself from before and behind, and thus enter the gantâghara.

13 'Let him not sit down so as to encroach on senior Bhikkhus, nor let him dislodge junior Bhikkhus from their seats. Let him wait upon the upagghâya in the gantâghara. When he is going to leave the gantâghara, let him take up the chair belonging to the gantâghara, cover himself from before and behind, and thus leave the gantâghara. Let him wait upon the upagghâya also in the water. When he has bathed, let (the saddhivihârika) go out of the water first, let him dry his own body, put on his dress, then wipe off the water from his upagghâya's body, give him his under garment and his upper garment, take the chair belonging to the gantâghara, go before the upagghâya, prepare a seat for him, and get water for the washing of his feet, a foot-stool, and a towel. Let him offer to the upagghâya (water) to drink.

14 'If (the upagghâya) likes being called upon to deliver a discourse, let him call upon (the upagghâya to do so). If (the upagghâya) likes questions being put to him, let him put questions (to the upagghâya).

'If the Vihâra, in which the upagghâya dwells, is dirty, let him clean that Vihâra, if he is able to do so. When cleaning the Vihâra, let him first take away the alms-bowl and the robe (of the upagghâya) and lay them aside. Let him take away the mat and the sheet and lay them aside. Let him take away the mattress and the pillow and lay them aside.

15 'Let him turn down the bed, take it away properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door or doorpost, and put it aside. Let him turn down the chair, take it away properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door or doorpost, and put it aside. Let him take away the supporters of the bed and put them aside. Let him take away the spitting-box and put it aside. Let him take away the board to recline on and put it aside. Let him take away the carpet, after having noticed how it was spread out, and put it aside. If there are cobwebs in the Vihâra, let him remove them as soon as he sees them. Let him wipe off the casements and the corners of the room. If a wall which is coated with red chalk, is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring it out, and scour the wall. If the floor is coated black and is dirty, let him moisten the mop, wring it out, and scour the floor. If the floor is not blacked, let him sprinkle it with water and scrub it in order that the Vihâra may not become dusty. Let him heap up the sweepings and cast them aside.

16 'Let him bask the carpet in the sunshine, clean it, dust it by beating, take it back, and spread it out as it was spread before. Let him put the supporters of the bed in the sunshine, wipe them take them back, and put them in their place. Let him put the bed in the sunshine, dean it, dust it by beating, turn it down, take it back properly without rubbing it (against the floor) and without knocking it against door and doorpost, and put it in its place. Let him put the chair in the sunshine, &c. [as in 1st Khandhaka 25:15] Let him put mattress and pillow in the sunshine, clean them, dust them by beating, take them back, and lay them out as they were laid out before. Let him put the mat and sheet in the sunshine, &c. Let him put the spittoon in the sunshine, wipe it, take it back, and put it in its place. Let him put in the sunshine the board to recline on, &c.

17 'Let him put away the alms-bowl and the robe. When he puts them away (&c., as in [1st Khandhaka 25:11], down to:), and hang up the robe so that the border is turned away from him and the fold is turned towards him.

18 'If dusty winds blow from the East, let him shut the windows on the East. If dusty winds blow from the West, let him shut the windows on the West, &c. [for North and South]. If it is cold weather, let him open the windows by day and shut them at night. If it is hot weather, let him shut the windows by day and open them at night.

19 'If the cell is dirty, let him sweep the cell. If the store-room is dirty, let him sweep the store-room. If the refectory, &c. If the fire room, &c. If the privy is dirty, let him sweep the privy. If there is no drinkable water, let him provide drinkable water. If there is no food, let him provide food. If there is no water in the waterpot for rinsing the mouth with, let him pour water into the pot.

20 'If discontent has arisen within the upagghâya's heart, let the saddhivihârika appease him, or cause him to be appeased (by another), by compose him by religious conversation. If indecision has arisen in the upagghâya's mind, let the saddhivihârika dispel it, or cause it to be dispelled, or compose him by religious conversation. If the upagghâya takes to a false doctrine, let the saddhivihârika discuss it, or cause another to discuss it, or compose (the upagghâya) by religious conversation.

21 'If the upagghâya is guilty of a grave offence, and ought to be sentenced to parivâsa discipline [more information about parivâ and other terms in this paragraph can be found in the second and third books of the Kullavagga], let the saddhivihârika take care that the Sangha sentence the upagghâya to parivâsa discipline. If the upagghâya ought to be sentenced to recommence his penal discipline, let the saddhivihârika take care that the Sangha may order the upagghâya to recommence his penal discipline. If the mânatta discipline ought to be imposed on the upagghâya, let the saddhivihârika take care that the Sangha impose the mânatta discipline on the upagghâya. If the upagghâya is to be rehabilitated (when his penal discipline has been duly undergone), let the saddhivihârika take care that the Sangha rehabilitate the upagghâya.

22 'If the Samgha wishes to proceed against the upagghâya by the tagganiyakamma [more information on this and the other disciplinary procedures can be found in the first book of the Kullavagga], or the nissaya, or the pabbâganiyakamma, or the patisâraniyakamma, or the ukkhepaniyakamma, let the saddhivihârika do what he can in order that the Sangha may not proceed against the upagghâya or may mitigate the proceeding. Or if the Sangha has instituted a proceeding against him, the tagganiyakamma, &c., or the ukkhepaniyakamma, let the saddhivihârika do what he can in order that the upagghâya may behave himself properly, live modestly, and aspire to get clear of his penance, and that the Sangha may revoke its sentence.

23 'If the robe of the upagghâya must be washed, let the saddhivihârika wash it or take care that the upagghâya's robe is washed. If a robe must be made for the upagghâya, let the saddhivihârika make it or take care that the upagghâya's robe is made. If dye must be boiled for the upagghâya, &c. If the robe of the upagghâya must be dyed, &c. When he dyes the robe, let him dye it properly and turn it whenever required, and let him not go away before the dye has ceased to drop.

24 'Let him not give his alms-bowl to any one without the permission of his upagghâya. Let him not accept an alms-bowl from any one else without the permission of his upagghâya. Let him not give his robe to any one else, &c. Let him not accept a robe from any one else; let him not give articles (required for a Bhikkhu) to any one else; let him not receive (such) articles from anyone else; let him not shave the hair of any one else; let him not have his hair shaven by any one else; let him not wait upon any one else; let him not have done service by any one else; let him not execute commissions for any one else; let him not have commissions executed by anyone else; let him not go with anyone else as his attendant; let him not take any one else with him as his attendant; let him not carry any one's food received by him in alms (to the Vihâra); let him not have the food received by himself in alms carried by any one (to the Vihâra) without the permission of his upagghâya. Let him not enter the village, or go to a cemetery, or go abroad on journeys without the permission of his upagghâya. If his upagghâya is sick, let him nurse him as long as his life lasts, and wait until he has recovered.'

End of the duties towards an upagghâya.

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