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Knox was the critical agent in reforming the Scottish church into protestantism.

In 1560, Knox convinced the Scottish parliament to revoke papal authority over the formerly Catholic Scotland, establishing the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, a state church, and forbidding Mass at the same time.

The Church of Scotland relied strictly on Calvinist teaching, meaning simple services which relied on preaching. The Book of Common Order, written by Knox in 1567, was the main liturgical directory for the church.

The Church of Scotland was modeled after Geneva.

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