Saint Louis
(1215 - 1270)

Authority forgets a dying king.
                          -Alfred, Lord Tennyson


Maman's Roi

Blanche of Castile, though half English, was Louis VIII's wife and Queen, and in Poissy on April 25, 1215 she was mother to whom would became Crown Prince, Louis. As fate would have it, the King only lived another eleven years after this blessed event, that gave way to another: the Coronation of thirteen year old Louis IX. Blanche was to now effectively rule as Regent for the next eight years. She would prove to be a strong Queen Mother. Blanche's prolific letter writing to her family helped leave a historical record of these times. She not only instilled in the boy strength of will to rule, but strength of moral character, as he followed her advice to spend much time, unbeknownst to the public, in prayer, fasting, and penance. After all, grandpère was relentless in pursuing those challenging the faith. His mother had pleaded with him:

I would rather see you dead at my feet than guilty of a mortal sin.**

Getting One's Thunder Plundered

The wisest have the most authority. --Plato

Little Louis watched as Mom won her battles gaining Languedoc back from Albigensian Count Raymond VII and Duke of Toulouse***, and obtaining Brittany from Pierre Mauclerc. While victorious over Philip Hurepel in le Ile de France, her efforts came to a draw against England's Henry III, in spite of legate Frangipani's aid. This latter individual, who had personally received Raymond's capitulation at Notre Dame, cajoled Pope Gregory IX to spurn Henry III, and help the French, a feat that he started under Honorius III with Louis VIII. His work led to the Treaty of Paris in April 1229 that united Provençe with the North.

A Marriage, a Kingdom and a Mother in Law

If a child of God marries a child of God he is sure to have some trouble with his father-in-law. --Anonymous

The nineteen year old was given a thirteen year old bride in 1234, the sister of no less than his royal pain and competitor Henry III's wife Eleanor*, Marguerite de Provençe and was given the authority of the Throne, coronated at Reims; though his kibitzer mother-- often by his side-- was still involved with governing until her death in 1253. His wife, of whom it was said Louis truly loved, bore him eleven children and she lived until 1295. Their children:

  1. Blanche (1240-1243)
  2. Isabelle
  3. Louis
  4. Philippe III (1245-1270) King of France m. Isabelle d'Aragon
  5. Jean
  6. Jean Tristan
  7. Pierre
  8. Blanche (1253-1320)
  9. Marguerite
  10. Robert
  11. Agnes

Rebel Alliance

Of all the laws we have to contend with, the most troublesome are usually the in-laws. --Anonymous

Hardly much after the young King had sat on his velvety seat than he had to deal with sedition from Count de la Marche who united treacherously with Uncle-in-Law, Henry III! After Louis put this down at Taillebourg in 1242, he was awarded annexation of Saintonge at the Peace of Bordeaux. He also subdued Raymond VII and Poitou at this time as well.

Protecting the Innocent

Friendship, of itself a holy tie,
Is made more sacred by adversity.
--John Dryden

The European business of who taxes who: secular versus religious, and who was the new Holy Roman Emperor involved Louis as well. He supported Hohenstaufen Frederick II, considered stupor mundi, during his disputes with northern Italian conquests, even after his Council of Lyons' excommunication in 1245. He tried, unsuccessfully of course, to intervene Ironically earlier Louis even did not approve of his brother Robert of Artois, instead of Frederick, receiving the Imperial Crown from Gregory IX back in 1240. This good relationship lasted until Pope Innocent IV received Frances' protection at Lyons (in exile there since late 1244). The concern was the surrounding of Papal States by unfriendly forces as Frederick was King of Sicily. This reversal of allegiance resulted in brother Charles Anjou's marriage to Beatrix of Provençe getting Vatican approval. Then with Louis' (and Blanches') military committed for insurance, Frederick's attempt to capture the displaced Pontiff was dissuaded.

Peace Means War

It is the province of kings to cause war, and of God to end it. -- Cardinal Pole

Louis' contemplations of starting a Crusade were intensified during the juxtaposition of his illness and very disturbing dispatches in 1244 from Jerusalem of its fall to the Turcomans. He swore to take the cross, and he launched his first Crusade, considered the Seventh overall, in 1248. While not able to draft too many from the rest of embroiled Europe, he did gather up men predominantly from France to take up the cross with him, brothers Robert of Artois, Charles of Anjou, and Alphonse of Poitiers. This company included, Duke Hugh of Burgundy, Counts Peter of Brittany and John of Montfort, and the men that were inspired to follow. He had to satisfy as well some hurt feelings from earlier bad blood disputes and assured uniformity of allegiance. This was true of Count Raymond, who died before he could leave after taking the cross. He had a reputation of a valued arbitrator throughout Europe.

The logistics were quite an undertaking. He spent millions of their currency, fortunately for him raised by a happier populace after his settling Franciscan and Domincan claims. It was a good thing for him that he enjoyed a period of prosperity to pay for his projects, and his coffers increased by the continuation of grandfather Philippe II's reforms: getting rid of scattered fuedal fueds, pushing Roman law, finalizing Royal appellate power, srteamlining government and making fairer taxation improvements. He contracted in 1246 in Genoa and Marseille thirty six ships, and for the next two years gathered their materiel for the endeavor in Cyprus. He built a new Royal Port of Aigues-Mortes for their embarkation.

They had planned in advance to taking on Egypt and its wealth first, and then proceeding to the other Old and New Testament lands.

Travel is an experience that enlarges the minds of some people but swells the heads of others. --Anonymous

His army arrived in Limassol, Cyprus in 1248, and not too long afterwards he met what a supposed emissary from the Mongol conqueror's Great Khan. Hearing of the their desire (especially the rumor of Ghengis Khan's Christian conversion) to fight in common with Islam, he sent his accompanying nominally Arabic speaking Dominican Friar Andrew of Longumeau, who had been to Batu, as official diplomatic envoy on an arduous journey far into Asia.

His forces in Cyprus combined there with two hundred English Knights, and they landed at Damietta, which is at the mouth of the Nile, in 1249. Some say he waited too long, not taking advantage of the Sultan's absence, but in defense of Louis, he need all available forces.

Defeat by the Sultaness

A woman's guess is much more accurate than a man's certainty. --Rudyard Kipling

The defense of Egypt was commanded by Shagrat al-Durr, who was the ex-slave from Turkoman, now wife of Salih Ayyub, one of a handful of heroic Moslem women, and acted as Regent while her husband was away attacking Aleppo, Syria and on business in Damascus. She continued this role, after she hid the death of Salih just after he returned, and still remained effectively running the defense as son Turan was officially given the seat of rule.

One's Worst Enemy

It is never wise to slip the hands of discipline. --Lew Wallace

After landing they had confused the Egyptians initially, getting the beach-head, but they were over-confident. Louis did not pursue, as he was aware of the problems of the Fifth Crusade and the yearly Nile flood; and he awaited reinforcements. While mustering, organization and chivalry broke down, and Louis, disappointingly, was helpless to prevent the soldier's ransacking civilians. The bad karma came back upon them and fever and sickness plagued the expeditionary forces.

Pampered Prisoner

Men are respectable only as they respect. --Ralph Emerson

After Alphonse arrived with reinforcements, they moved toward Cairo, their advance stopped at Al-Bahr al-Saghir across from Mansurah. In 1250 Shagrit's forces roundly, soundly defeated the Frank Crusaders at Mansurah, because Robert of Artois had disobeyed Louis' orders to wait before crossing the river, and lost too many men. Surrounded and blockaded at Sharamsah King Louis surrendered. His Arab wardens discerned in him a special integrity and bravery that even caused them to honor him by kneeling in his presence during conversation. The victorious Shagrat was made the first Mamluk Sultan after her generals assassinated Turan soon afterwards, ending the Ayyubid Empire. She arranged for the King's release after a peace was made where they relinquished claim to Damietta, and ransom was paid. The ultimate irony was now already put in motion, catalysis provided by Louis, that these new rulers would eventually take back the Holy Lands, which included the European founded Kingdom of Jerusalem.

While We Were in the Area

If I forget you, O Jerusalem,
Let my right hand forget its skill!
--Psalm 137:5

Louis, in spite of these traumas, nevertheless took advantage of his proximity to the Holy Lands, and set sail there -- visiting the few permitted sites left. He made it a "working vacation" and supervised the strengthening of what lands were still in Western hands like Acre, Caesarea and Jaffa. In 1252 he made a treaty with Egypt, and by 1254 he had one with Damascus and Aleppo. While in Constantinople he heard of what had happened to Friar Longumeau: that the supposed Christian Khan had died, and the Regent Mother Ogul Gaimish sent him off with disrespectful dispatches for his king as well. Trying again, but careful this time not to push ambassadorship, he dispatched accompanying Franciscan Friar William of Rubruck back to the land of the Tatars.

Back at the Ranch Castle

It sure would be wonderful for mother if she could collect time-and-a-half for overtime --Anonymous
Things were in good hands back home, as La Mère Blanche was taking care of the typical royal business of that time, continuing to get the Church's favor concerning taxation that was for so long leaning toward Italians. But one major incident was stopping the "Hungarian Master" and his anti-clerical mob, Les Patoureaux-- even alleged to be in cahoots with Moslems -- who died losing at Villaneuve; with all the malcontents scattered. Upon Blanche's death, his son took over the regency until his father's return.

Back Home

Better do a good deed near home than go far away to burn incense --Chinese Proverb

At last sailing for home in the spring of 1254, he made the same promise that Arnold Schwarzenegger, and Douglas MacArthur made of returning. He, like so many after defeat in war, was transformed radically. Also, his mother was deceased and not able to give the support she had for so long. He felt sinfully responsible for the failure, and he exchanged his royal finery for plain and simple, even traded sleeping on a feather bed for a thin mattress on wood. Taking the advice to not abdicate and join a monastery, he then turned his Royal Command as the means to doing good work.


A Christian man is the most free lord of all, and subject to none; a Christian man is the most dutiful servant of all, and subject to everyone. --Martin Luther

He not only wanted to purge himself of inequity, but he strove now to more fervently rid his kingdom of such offenses, as well. His moral rebuilding program began with the December 1254 ordinance that started judicial and administrative reforms, and he continued with prohibitions of gambling, prostitution, blasphemy, usury and heresy. The former workers of the 'world's oldest profession' were relocated in specially built housing (Felles-Dieu) for their rehabilitation. Out of a concern of efficiently enacting his renewal, the central royal government was strengthened. He established the Curia Regis, the Court of the King, and he created 'parliaments' or commissions ('Dit d'Amiens') that were regular judical sessions. His compilation of customs (not code) became his 'Etablissements de St. Louis'.

He took care of, even personally, those that included the lowest in his domain, even bringing in the destitute and hungry to his dining room, washing feet, and caring for lepers. Hundreds were fed every day. He was a powerful patron of the Fine Arts and Higher Learning, having had constructed the breathtakingly beautiful cathedral Saint Chappelle, and helped Robert de Sorbonne found the famous theological College in Paris; but more importantly he founded many hospitals - in Pontoise, Vernon and Compiégne, including the Quinze-Vingt for three hundred blind men.

King Louis IX left a reputation of being a fair and just ruler, and he was considered even by contemporaries as "the most Christian king."

If it is possible, as much as depends on you, live peaceably with all men. -- Romans 12:18

Burying the hatchet with Uncle Henry III, he settled disputes over Limoges, Cahors, and Perigueux at the 1259 Treaty of Paris. Louis, in return, recieved, Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Touraine and Poitou, as well as Suzerainship over a reduced Duchy of Aquitaine. He likewise made deals with Aragon's King James I, giving him Rouissillon and Barcelona for Languedoc and Provençe. Friends again, he arbitrated in Henry III's defense over the grieveances of the English nobles. He did likewise settle the argument between the Avesnes and Dampierre clans' inheritance of Hainault and Flanders counties in 1256.

Louis at first did not agree to the Pope Urban's desire to install his son Charles as King of Sicily (an Apostolic See's Fiefdom), but eventually Charles accepted and led an army, helped by Louis' best soldiers, that defeated the Hohenstaufens represented by Frederick II's son, Manfred in 1266 at the Battle of Benevento. At this same time, the King, after feeling he had accomplished what he needed domestically, now looked again to the Holy Lands, and their liberation. In the spring of 1267 he had a meeting of all the King's men, and he was only able to muster up a force of around ten thousand, but he did get England's Prince Edward to go. He finagled finances by tax schemes, and contracted thirty-nine ships to take them on this Eighth Crusade, and his second and last.

Last Goodbye

Jerusalem! O Jerusalem!

Leaving his son Philippe in charge, he left his special port, Aigues-Mortes in 1270 to meet with the others at most likely Cagliari in Sardinia. Why the target of Tunis was selected probably was due to brother Charles' trouble with Tunis' Emir Muhammad I. Unfortunately, Louis died from typhus on the 25th of August of that same year, and could not go with the others that made it to Acre the next year.

The good King was also an excellent father and he sent a copious letter with written instructions of life for him.****

Louis le Saint

 Saints, to do us good,

Must be in heaven. --Robert Browning

Miracles were supposedly attributed to Louis right after his death and during the trip his heart and body were returned home. Pope Gregory X started the canonization process in 1272 that succeeded in 1297.

Ironically, his fellow crusader and first major biographer, John of Joinville was upset when his King wanted to leave France for another adventure and admitted:

I considered that all those who had advised the king to go on this expedition committed mortal sin. For at that time the state of the country was such that thre was perfect peace throughout the kingdom... while ever since King Louis went away the state of the kingdom has done nothing but go from bad to worse.
But, at the making Louis a saint he gushed:
It has brought great honour to those of the good king's line who are like him in doing well, and equal dishonour to those of his descendants who do not follow him in good works.
Most of us know the most famous of cities named after him in Missouri, and there are several others.



* There was another Eleanor and Henry II from two generations earlier as featured in A Lion in Winter.

** Could be put to the tune of John Lennon's Beatle song, "Run for Your Life."

*** This area was a problem area as merchants and nobles had supported the Cathars (from Latin word meaning Puritans) in these lands, where there was an Albgensian Crusade. Afterwards Tribunals of Inquiry were established to ferret out remaining dissenters. Count Raymond had seen his excommunicated father's body decompose in its coffin, as it was not allowed to be buried. Heretics' homes were torched and became trash piles.

**** Full text of Louis IX's letter from Tunis to his son, Philippe:

1. To his dear first-born son, Philip, greeting, and his father's love.

2. Dear son, since I desire with all my heart that you be well "instructed in all things, it is in my thought to give you some advice this writing. For I have heard you say, several times, that you remember my words better than those of any one else.

3. Therefore, dear son, the first thing I advise is that you fix your whole heart upon God, and love Him with all your strength, for without this no one can be saved or be of any worth.

4. You should, with all your strength, shun everything which you believe to be displeasing to Him. And you ought especially to be resolved not to commit mortal sin, no matter what may happen and should permit all your limbs to be hewn off, and suffer every manner of torment , rather than fall knowingly into mortal sin.

5. If our Lord send you any adversity, whether illness or other in good patience, and thank Him for it, thing, you should receive it in good patience and be thankful for it, for you ought to believe that He will cause everything to turn out for your good; and likewise you should think that you have well merited it, and more also, should He will it, because you have loved Him but little, and served Him but little, and have done many things contrary to His will.

6. If our Lord send you any prosperity, either health of body or other thing you ought to thank Him humbly for it, and you ought to be careful that you are not the worse for it, either through pride or anything else, for it is a very great sin to fight against our Lord with His gifts.

7. Dear son, I advise you that you accustom yourself to frequent confession, and that you choose always, as your confessors, men who are upright and sufficiently learned, and who can teach you what you should do and what you should avoid. You should so carry yourself that your confessors and other friends may dare confidently to reprove you and show you your faults.

8. Dear son, I advise you that you listen willingly and devoutly the services of Holy Church, and, when you are in church, avoid to frivolity and trifling, and do not look here and there; but pray to God with lips and heart alike, while entertaining sweet thoughts about Him, and especially at the mass, when the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ are consecrated, and for a little time before.

9. Dear son, have a tender pitiful heart for the poor, and for all those whom you believe to be in misery of heart or body, and, according to your ability, comfort and aid them with some alms.

10. Maintain the good customs of your realm, and put down the bad ones. Do not oppress your people and do not burden them with tolls or tailles, except under very great necessity.

11. If you have any unrest of heart, of such a nature that it may be told, tell it to your confessor, or to some upright man who can keep your secret; you will be able to carry more easily the thought of your heart.

12. See to it that those of your household are upright and loyal, and remember the Scripture, which says: "Elige viros timentes Deum in quibus sit justicia et qui oderint avariciam"; that is to say, "Love those who serve God and who render strict justice and hate covetousness"; and you will profit, and will govern your kingdom well.

13. Dear son, see to it that all your associates are upright, whether clerics or laymen, and have frequent good converse with them; and flee the society of the bad. And listen willingly to the word of God, both in open and in secret; and purchase freely prayers and pardons.

14. Love all good, and hate all evil, in whomsoever it may be.

15. Let no one be so bold as to say, in your presence, words which attract and lead to sin, and do not permit words of detraction to be spoken of another behind his back.

!6. Suffer it not that any ill be spoken of God or His saints in your presence, without taking prompt vengeance. But if the offender be a clerk or so great a person that you ought not to try him, report the matter to him who is entitled to judge it.

17. Dear son, give thanks to God often for all the good things He has done for you, so that you may be worthy to receive more, in such a manner that if it please the Lord that you come to the burden and honor of governing the kingdom, you may be worthy to receive the sacred unction wherewith the kings of France are consecrated.

18. Dear son, if you come to the throne, strive to have that which befits a king, that is to say, that in justice and rectitude you hold yourself steadfast and loyal toward your subjects and your vassals, without turning either to the right or to the left, but always straight, whatever may happen. And if a poor man have a quarrel with a rich man, sustain the poor rather than the rich, until the truth is made clear, and when you know the truth, do justice to them.

19. If any one have entered into a suit against you (for any injury or wrong which he may believe that you have done to him), be always for him and against yourself in the presence of your council, without showing that you think much of your case (until the truth be made known concerning it); for those of your council might be backward in speaking against you, and this you should not wish; and command your judges that you be not in any way upheld more than any others, for thus will your councillors judge more boldly according to right and truth.

20. If you have anything belonging to another, either of yourself or through your predecessors, if the matter is certain, give it up without delay, however great it may be, either in land or money or otherwise. If the matter is doubtful, have it inquired into by wise men, promptly and diligently. And if the affair is so obscure that you cannot know the truth, make such a settlement, by the counsel of s of upright men, that your soul, and the soul your predecessors, may be wholly freed from the affair. And even if you hear some one say that your predecessors made restitution, make diligent inquiry to learn if anything remains to be restored; and if you find that such is the case, cause it to be delivered over at once, for the liberation of your soul and the souls of your predecessors.

21. You should seek earnestly how your vassals and your subjects may live in peace and rectitude beneath your sway; likewise, the good towns and the good cities of your kingdom. And preserve them in the estate and the liberty in which your predecessors kept them, redress it, and if there be anything to amend, amend and preserve their favor and their love. For it is by the strength and the riches of your good cities and your good towns that the native and the foreigner, especially your peers and your barons, are deterred from doing ill to you. I will remember that Paris and the good towns of my kingdom aided me against the barons, when I was newly crowned.

22. Honor and love all the people of Holy Church, and be careful that no violence be done to them, and that their gifts and alms, which your predecessors have bestowed upon them, be not taken away or diminished. And I wish here to tell you what is related concerning King Philip, my ancestor, as one of his council, who said he heard it, told it to me. The king, one day, was with his privy council, and he was there who told me these words. And one of the king's councillors said to him how much wrong and loss he suffered from those of Holy Church, in that they took away his rights and lessened the jurisdiction of his court; and they marveled greatly how he endured it. And the good king answered: "I am quite certain that they do me much wrong, but when I consider the goodnesses and kindnesses which God has done me, I had rather that my rights should go, than have a contention or awaken a quarrel with Holy Church." And this I tell to you that you may not lightly believe anything against the people of Holy Church; so love them and honor them and watch over them that they may in peace do the service of our Lord.

23. Moreover, I advise you to love dearly the clergy, and, so far as you are able, do good to them in their necessities, and likewise love those by whom God is most honored and served, and by whom the Faith is preached and exalted.

24. Dear son, I advise that you love and reverence your father and your mother, willingly remember and keep their commandments, and be inclined to believe their good counsels.

25. Love your brothers, and always wish their well-being and their good advancement, and also be to them in the place of a father, to instruct them in all good. But be watchful lest, for the love which you bear to one, you turn aside from right doing, and do to the others that which is not meet.

26. Dear son, I advise you to bestow the benefices of Holy Church which you have to give, upon good persons, of good and clean life, and that you bestow them with the high counsel of upright men. And I am of the opinion that it is preferable to give them to those who hold nothing of Holy Church, rather than to others. For, if you inquire diligently, you will find enough of those who have nothing who will use wisely that entrusted to them.

27. Dear son, I advise you that you try with all your strength to avoid warring against any Christian man, unless he have done you too much ill. And if wrong be done you, try several ways to see if you can find how you can secure your rights, before you make war; and act thus in order to avoid the sins which are committed in warfare.

28. And if it fall out that it is needful that you should make war (either because some one of your vassals has failed to plead his case in your court, or because he has done wrong to some church or to some poor person, or to any other person whatsoever, and is unwilling to make amends out of regard for you, or for any other reasonable cause), whatever the reason for which it is necessary for you to make war, give diligent command that the poor folk who have done no wrong or crime be protected from damage to their vines, either through fire or otherwise, for it were more fitting that you should constrain the wrongdoer by taking his own property (either towns or castles, by force of siege), than that you should devastate the property of poor people. And be careful not to start the war before you have good counsel that the cause is most reasonable, and before you have summoned the offender to make amends, and have waited as long as you should. And if he ask mercy, you ought to pardon him, and accept his amende, so that God may be pleased with you.

29. Dear son, I advise you to appease wars and contentions, whether they be yours or those of your subjects, just as quickly as may be, for it is a thing most pleasing to our Lord. And Monsignore Martin gave us a very great example of this. For, one time, when our Lord made it known to him that he was about to die, he set out to make peace between certain clerks of his archbishopric, and he was of the opinion that in so doing he was giving a good end to life.

30. Seek diligently, most sweet son, to have good baillis and good prevots in your land, and inquire frequently concerning their doings, and how they conduct themselves, and if they administer justice well, and do no wrong to any one, nor anything which they ought not do. Inquire more often concerning those of your household if they be too covetous or too arrogant; for it is natural that the members should seek to imitate their chief; that is, when the master is wise and well-behaved, all those of his household follow his example and prefer it. For however much you ought to hate evil in others, you should have more hatred for the evil which comes from those who derive their power from you, than you bear to the evil of others; and the more ought you to be on your guard and prevent this from happening.

3!. Dear son, I advise you always to be devoted to the Church of Rome, and to the sovereign pontiff, our father, and to bear him the the reverence and honor which you owe to your spiritual father.

32. Dear son, freely give power to persons of good character, who know how to use it well, and strive to have wickednesses expelled from your land, that is to say, nasty oaths, and everything said or done against God or our Lady or the saints. In a wise and proper manner put a stop, in your land, to bodily sins, dicing, taverns, and other sins. Put down heresy so far as you can, and hold in especial abhorrence Jews, and all sorts of people who are hostile to the Faith, so that your land may be well purged of them, in such manner as, by the sage counsel of good people, may appear to you advisable.

33. Further the right with all your strength. Moreover I admonish you you that you strive most earnestly to show your gratitude for the benefits which our Lord has bestowed upon you, and that you may know how to give Him thanks therefore

34. Dear son, take care that the expenses of your household are reasonable and moderate, and that its moneys are justly obtained. And there is one opinion that I deeply wish you to entertain, that is to say, that you keep yourself free from foolish expenses and evil exactions, and that your money should be well expended and well acquired. And this opinion, together with other opinions which are suitable and profitable, I pray that our Lord may teach you.

35. Finally, most sweet son, I conjure and require you that, if it please our Lord that I should die before you, you have my soul succored with masses and orisons, and that you send through the congregations of the Kingdom of France, and demand their prayers for my soul, and that you grant me a special and full part in all the good deeds which you perform.

36. In conclusion, dear son, I give you all the blessings which a good and tender father can give to a son, and I pray our Lord Jesus Christ, by His mercy, by the prayers and merits of His blessed Mother, the Virgin Mary, and of angels and archangels and of all the saints, to guard and protect you from doing anything contrary to His will, and to give you grace to do it always, so that He may be honored and served by you. And this may He do to me as to you, by His great bounty, so that after this mortal life we may be able to be together with Him in the eternal life, and see Him, love Him, and praise Him without end. Amen. And glory, honor, and praise be to Him who is one God with the Father and the Holy Spirit; without beginning and without end. Amen.

From "Saint Louis' Advice to His Son", in Medieval Civilization, trans. and eds. Dana Munro and George Clarke.


Sources: (Paul Halsall, January 1996)
The Challenge of the West, ed. Lynn Hunt et al, D.C. Heath: Lexington, MA, 1995.
The Discoverers; A History of Man's Search to Know His World and Himself, Daniel J. Boorstin; Vintage Books: New York, 1985.

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