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In logic, the term describing an inductive argument that meets one of the following criteria:
  1. The argument is weak, but the premises and conclusion are true. For example: All men have lungs. Therefore, probably most men stand upright.
  2. The argument is weak, and the premises are true, but the conclusion is false. For example: All men have lungs. Therefore, probably all men breathe methane.
  3. The argument is strong, and the conclusion is true, but the premises are false. For example: All physicists have known about quantum mechanics. Therefore, future physicists will probably know about quantum mechanics.
  4. The argument is weak, and the conclusion is true, but the premises are false. For example: All people in Rome speak Latin. Therefore, probably the people in Greece speak Greek.
  5. The argument is strong, but the premises and the conclusion are false. For example: Nine out of ten men are ambidextrous. Therefore, if you are male then you are probably ambidextrous.
  6. The argument is weak, and the premises and the conclusion are false. For example: All men are left-handed. Therefore, your daughter is probably left-handed. (this is assuming that either you have no daughter or that your daughter is not left-handed)

Contrast with cogent.

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