(From the Greek barys, "heavy") A silver-white, slightly malleable, metallic chemical element, one of the alkaline-earth metals, found as a carbonate or sulfate and used in alloys.

Symbol: Ba
Atomic number: 56
Atomic weight: 137.327
Density (at room temperature and pressure): 3.51 g/cc
Melting point: 730°C
Boiling point: 1,897°C
Valence: +2
Ground state electron configuration: [Xe]6s2

Symbol: Ba
Atomic Number: 56
Atomic Weight: 137.33
Boiling Point: 2078 K
Melting Point: 1002 K
Density at 300K: 3.59 g/cm3
Covalent radius: 1.98
Atomic radius: 2.78
Atomic volume: 39.0 cm3/mol
First ionization potental: 5.212 V
Specific heat capacity: 0.204 Jg-1K-1
Thermal conductivity: 18.4 Wm-1K-1
Electrical conductivity: 2.8*106Ω-1m-1
Heat of fusion: 8.01 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 140.2 kJ/mol
Electronegativity: 0.89 (Pauling's)

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Uses for Barium:

Barium carbonate is an effective rat poison.

Barium nitrate and barium chlorate are used for green coloring in fireworks and pyrotechnics.

Barium is used as a weighting agent in oil well drilling fluids.

Barium is used in making rubber.

Barium sulfate is used as a white pigment, and x-ray imaging.

Ba"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. bary`s heavy.] Chem.

One of the elements, belonging to the alkaline earth group; a metal having a silver-white color, and melting at a very high temperature. It is difficult to obtain the pure metal, from the facility with which it becomes oxidized in the air. Atomic weight, 137. Symbol, Ba. Its oxide called baryta.

[Rarely written barytum.]

⇒ Some of the compounds of this element are remarkable for their high specific gravity, as the sulphate, called heavy spar, and the like. The oxide was called barote, by Guyton de Morveau, which name was changed by Lavoisier to baryta, whence the name of the metal.


© Webster 1913.

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