The genetic code, 8-dimensional hypercomplex numbers and dyadic shifts. Matrix genetics and the bipolar algebra of the genetic code. II, Pages co-author M. The genetic code, Hadamard matrices and algebraic biology. Matrix genetics, part 5: genetic projection operators and direct sums. The genetic code, Hadamard matrices and inherited cycles. Materials of the Conference, p. IXpp. He, P. Ricci 7. Symmetries in matrix genetics and Hadamard matrices of the genetic code. Symmetries, generalized numbers and harmonic laws in matrix genetics.

Matrix genetics, part 4: cyclic changes of the genetic 8-dimensional Yin-Yang-algebras and the algebraic models of physiological cycles. Matrix genetics, part 3: the evolution of the genetic code from the viewpoint of the genetic octave Yin-Yang-algebra.

Matrix genetics, part 1: permutations of positions in triplets and symmetries of genetic matrices. The degeneracy of the genetic code and Hadamard matrices. Degeneracy of the genetic code and its own multi-dimensional algebra. Berlin, July, Abstract book, p. Matrix genetics, musical harmony and the genetic matrices of hydrogen bonds. Harmony of living nature, symmetries of genetic systems and matrix genetics.

Utenkov Hadamard matrices and quint matrices in matrix presentations of molecular genetic systems. Symmetries and tensors of genetic codes. A bioinformatic approach to the geometrization of biology. Editor: Michel Petitjean. Brutlag, M. He, G.The performance of cookstove is mostly determined by trial-and-error experiments and its evaluation using simple thermodynamics and heat transfer equations.

The effect of variation in inlet area ratio on the flame temperature and the exhaust is investigated on natural-type biomass cookstove. Numerical simulations have also been carried out and validated with the experimental results.

Geometry creation and meshing of the domain are done using ICEM ver. Probability density function PDF accounts for the interaction between turbulence and fuel composition. The data obtained from the experiment is used as a boundary condition for the numerical simulation. Results showed that CFD is a great tool with accuracy and time-saving features to understand the thermal behavior of cookstove and can be used to model different stoves at different conditions without performing the actual experiment.

The value of critical inlet area ratio remains almost the same for any natural draft biomass cookstove, which is around 0. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Bhowte YW Forecasting the load of demand and supply of electricity in India. Google Scholar. Energy Policy 22 5 — Environ Dev Sustain 19 3 — PCIA—the partnership for clean indoor air Accessed 07 Jan Environ Dev Sustain — Accessed 4 Dec WHO Data Renew Sustain Energy Rev — Kshirsagar MP, Kalamkar VR A comprehensive review on biomass cookstoves and a systematic approach for modern cookstove design.

Energy Sustain Dev 6 2 — Environ Dev Sustain, India. Pande R, Kalamkar V et al A mathematical modeling of two-pot biomass cookstove.Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections HCAI. However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of this emerging field.

This paper summarises how mathematical models have informed the field of HCAI and how methods have developed over time. In total, 96 papers met the eligibility criteria. Other common HCAIs, e. Very few models have been published on HCAI from low or middle-income countries.

**Review: Monoprice Maker Select V2**

The first HCAI model has looked at antimicrobial resistance in hospital settings using compartmental deterministic approaches. Stochastic models which include the role of chance in the transmission process are becoming increasingly common. Transmission models have been used to understand complex systems and to predict the impact of control policies.

Methods have generally improved, with an increased use of stochastic models, and more advanced methods for formal model fitting and sensitivity analyses. Insights gained from these models could be broadened to a wider range of pathogens and settings.

Improvements in the availability of data and statistical methods could enhance the predictive ability of models. Further progress in reducing the burden of HCAI is hindered by uncertainty surrounding the role of asymptomatic carriers [ 34 ], environmental transmission [ 5 - 7 ] and the recent emergence of bacteria other than MRSA and C. Escherichia coli [ 8 ]. Mathematical models are increasingly being used to obtain a deeper understanding of epidemiological patterns in hospital infections and to guide hospital infection control policy decisions, as is seen in other areas of infectious disease epidemiology [ 9 ].

A previous review of the area provided insight into the type of models used for hospital epidemiology and highlighted their capacity to increase epidemiological understanding, and inform infection control policy [ 10 ]. This review, conducted inprimarily aimed to explain the capacities of models and therefore was limited to a detailed description of a number of studies. Hence, the emerging trends in the area were not fully explored.

Since the field has expanded considerably. We conducted a systematic review in order to establish how mathematical models have been applied in the field of HCAI, and how model methods have developed over time. Results were limited to peer-reviewed publications in English. Search terms and Medical Subject Headings MeSH for nosocomial organisms and antibiotic resistance were combined with search and MeSH terms for healthcare settings and mathematical models as follows:.

We decided not to use search terms for nosocomial infection types e. The complete search strategy is provided in the Additional file 1. All databases were search identically, with exception of the MeSH terms, which were altered to the subject-heading dictionary used in each particular database.

The final search was conducted on 11 December Each title and abstract in the search result was independently screened by EvK and at least one of the other authors. Full text evaluation was conducted by EvK and in case of uncertainty, discussion took place with JR. Studies were excluded if they did not involve: 1 human to human transmission; or did involve 2 within host transmission only; 3 pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs e.

### The Effect of Inlet Area Ratio on the Performance of Multi-pot Natural Draft Biomass Cookstove

SARS epidemics ; or 6 literature review without new primary studies. Moreover, no editorials or letters to editors were included, except if a new mathematical model was introduced. After screening the titles and abstracts, papers met the inclusion criteria and were thus eligible for full text evaluation.

Review of the full text publications resulted in the inclusion of 94 relevant papers based on our selection criteria. An additional two papers were identified via reference screening [ 1112 ].

Number of HCAI modelling publications over time — Number of studies identified on modelling of HCAI and antimicrobial resistance spread in a nosocomial setting according to year of publication. In this review, studies that did not specify a particular pathogen of concern, but that claimed to investigate antimicrobial resistant bacteria, were classified as antimicrobial resistant bacteria ARB.

Pathogens modelled in a nosocomial setting — Number of studies identified on nosocomial infection transmission according to pathogen type.Light Metals pp Cite as. Spent pot lining SPL is a well-known waste product from the aluminium electrolytic cell.

The SPL generation rate is approximately 1—1. Some of the potential applications of SPL conceptualized at the University of Toronto are: a as a flux in the non ferrous industry, b as an alternate to coal in ironmaking blast furnaces. Experimental and mathematical modeling techniques have been used to test these ideas, and the results are discussed in detail.

Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. Conference paper First Online: 12 February This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Yu, V. Mambakkam, A. Rivera, D. Li, K. Chattopadhyay, Spent potlining SPL : a myriad of opportunities. Today 51—4 Google Scholar. Pong, R. Adrien, J. Besida, T. Wood, Spent potlining—a hazardous waste made safe. Process Saf.Furthermore, the parameters of the EDFA are regulated using full factorial analysis.

Finally, numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the efficiency and capability of the EDFA in solving the abovementioned problem.

### The mathematics of cancer: integrating quantitative models

Production scheduling is a form of decision-making that significantly impacts any manufacturing or service [ 1 ]. Efficient production schedules are critical in improving organization productivity by exploiting the production system efficiently and conducting the best utilization. According to the production environment, the single-machine scheduling problem SMSP is one of the most common scheduling problems that have been studied in the past few decades.

However, in some real-world manufacturing systems, studying the SMSP under the setup consideration between jobs is also required such as the manufacturing systems in painting and metalworking industries [ 2 ]. Comprehensive reviews regarding the setup consideration are provided [ 3 — 5 ] for all scheduling problem environments such as the single-machine scheduling, parallel machine scheduling, and flow shop scheduling problems.

The authors clarified the sequence-dependent setup time when the setup time for any job depends on the immediately preceding job; i. Different algorithms were proposed in [ 6 — 15 ] to optimize the SMSP with considering of the sequence-dependent setup times constraints.

An ant colony optimization was presented in [ 16 ] to minimize job tardiness for an SMSP with sequence-dependent setups. A single-machine scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and release dates had been less studied [ 21718 ]; one of these studies is [ 2 ] where a beam search and mixed-integer linear model were used to study the SMSP subject to the release date and nonanticipatory dependent setup time to minimize the makespan.

## Alternative Applications of SPL: Testing Ideas Through Experiments and Mathematical Modeling

Additionally, in several studies on scheduling in a single-machine environment as well as the previously mentioned papers, the problems have been simplified by ignoring the maintenance intervention dates assuming the production systems are continuously available over the planning horizon, which would increase the probability of machine breakdowns.

Many researchers have adopted some basic assumptions in their studies [ 19 — 21 ] by considering that maintenance activities are important to improve the manufacturing system efficiency and product quality.

However, to maintain the production system in a good condition and to decrease the probability of system failures, various maintenance policies periodic, preventive, among others have been applied in many real-world manufacturing systems where the periodic maintenance policy has been widely used [ 22 ].

Maintenance activities were performed during known intervention dates and occupied part of the running time of the planning horizon of the machine. Reference [ 23 ] addressed the problem when the maintenance duration is dependent on the workload time, and the start time for each maintenance is restricted to a given time window.

A mixed-integer linear programming model was used by [ 24 ] to minimize the makespan of a set of jobs on the SMSP with flexible periodic preventive maintenances, where the jobs have their own release dates.

Moreover, the authors provided two complementary algorithms, i. Reference [ 25 ] offered six types of heuristic algorithms to minimize the makespan in the SMSP by considering flexible periodic maintenance. An uncertain single-machine scheduling problem with periodic maintenance studies the SMSP subject to periodic maintenance with considering the uncertainty environment for the processing and maintenance time.

The uncertain data caused where the data cannot be accurately obtained and could be estimated via work experience. Three uncertain programming models were reported in [ 26 ] to solve the SMPS with periodic maintenance when the time of processing and repair are nondeterministic. Reference [ 27 ] provided a mathematical formulation and a knowledge-based variable neighborhood search algorithm to minimize the sum of maximum earliness and tardiness on a single machine with multiple unavailability constraints.

The works that address the SMSP with sequence-dependent setup times and periodic maintenance constraints are few. References [ 2829 ] considered the scheduling problem by minimizing the total earliness and tardiness penalties on the single machine with sequence-dependent setup times and planned maintenance constraints.

Paper [ 30 ] addressed the scheduling problem on a single machine with availability constraints and sequence-dependent setup to minimize the makespan; they also presented a mixed-integer linear model. In another work [ 31 ], the same authors offered a metaheuristic that combined the greedy randomized adaptive search procedure and a local search for the SMSP subject to preventive maintenance and sequence-dependent setup times.

Finally, [ 32 ] addressed the same above-mentioned problem and presented another metaheuristic that depended on the tabu search embedded in a multistart procedure.

The primary interest in this work is to provide a mixed-integer linear programming model and an effective algorithm called evolutionary discrete firefly algorithm for the production schedules for the single-machine problem subject to resale date, dependent setup time, and periodic maintenance, to minimize the makespan.

To our knowledge, the addressed problem herein has been not studied hitherto. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: The next section will be dedicated to describe the problem in detail and formulate it with a mixed integer linear programming model.

Section 3 presents a brief introduction to firefly algorithm, and Section 4 will be to demonstrate the proposed algorithm EDFA in details. Section 5discusses the parameter tuning for the proposed algorithm. Computational experiments are given in Section 6.Cognitive Radio Sensor Network CRSNincorporating cognitive radio capability in wireless sensor networks, is a new paradigm of the next-generation sensor network.

Sensor nodes are usually battery powered and hence have strict energy constraints. As a result, energy efficiency is also a very critical problem in the CRSN. In this paper, we focus on energy consumption because of spectrum sensing. Furthermore, we present an adaptive spectrum sensing time interval strategy, in which SUs can adjust the next spectrum sensing time interval according to the current spectrum sensing results namely, channel status.

In order to find an optimal spectrum sensing time interval, we introduce the Markov model. Then, we establish a Markov model-based mathematical modeling for analyzing the relationship between spectrum sensing time interval and prior spectrum sensing results. Finally, numerical results demonstrate that the proposed strategy with dynamic adaptive spectrum sensing time interval exceeded listen before talk LBT strategy which is widely used for traditional wireless sensor networks.

Wireless sensor networks WSNs [ 1 ] have tremendous applications in health monitoring, wildlife tracking, air pollution monitoring, and the use of it for gully pot monitoring in urban areas. Since it consists of resource-constrained sensor nodes, long network lifetime is one of the fundamental requirements in WSN. Moreover, one of the primary objectives of WSNs is to transmit a large amount of data timely and simultaneously, without using a large amount of network resources.

To deal with such problems, a new sensor networking paradigm with the dynamic spectrum access scheme is involved, in which wireless sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio capability.

The main design principles and features of CRSNs are discussed openly in the literature [ 3 — 5 ]. There are many advantages of CRSN, such as efficient spectrum usage, good radio propagation, and flexible deployment property. However, similar to the traditional WSN, a CRSN consists of a large number of low-cost, low-power sensor nodes namely, secondary user that operate on limited battery energy.

Furthermore, comparing to traditional WSN, the spectrum sensing process will cause more energy consumption. Above all, energy efficiency is an urgent problem in CRSN.

## Markov Model-Based Energy Efficiency Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

There are some studies which have started researching this issue. Hareesh and Singh proposed a new hybrid cooperative spectrum sensing technique which associates energy and eigenvalue based detectors to improve the energy efficiency of CRSN in [ 6 ].

In [ 7 ], Phuong and Kim proposed an intelligent power control scheme to address the communication requirement based on the interference model of cumulative interference from the entire cognitive industrial sensor networks. Liu et al.Libraries and resellers, please contact cust-serv ams.

See our librarian page for additional eBook ordering options. This unique book presents simple mathematical models of various aspects of sports with applications to sports training and competitions. Requiring only a background in precalculus, it would be suitable as a textbook for courses in mathematical modeling and operations research at the high school or college level.

Coaches and those who participate in sports will find it interesting as well. The lively writing style and wide range of topics make this book especially appealing. Advanced high school and undergraduate mathematics students. Coaches and sportsmen with elementary pre-calculus mathematics knowledge. Some of the … mathematical applications—particularly in areas related to operations research—are more intriguing.

The authors have made a good effort to draw illustrations from many different sports … They also demonstrate a wide variety of mathematical techniques with relatively simple examples … a student might find something here to spark an interest in further investigation. Know that ebook versions of most of our titles are still available and may be downloaded after purchase.

AMS Homepage. Join our email list. Sign up. Ordering on the AMS Bookstore is limited to individuals for personal use only. Mathematics and Sports Share this page. Advanced search. Author s Product display : L. Abstract: This unique book presents simple mathematical models of various aspects of sports with applications to sports training and competitions. Book Series Name: Mathematical World. Volume: 3. Publication Month and Year:

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