New Spain was the name given to Central America, the Caribbean, and the southern United States back when they were ruled by Spain. It was one of four Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas, along with New Granada, New Castilia, and Rio de la Plata. It was established in 1518.

New Spain's capital was in Mexico City, and there were regional capitals in Guadalajara, Guatemala City, and Santo Domingo. Most of New Spain became independent in 1821, but the last stragglers in the Greater Antilles were part of New Spain until the U.S. won them in the Spanish-American War of 1898.

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