Part of the Cold War Document and Speech Meta Node
Washington DC, 4th April 1949
The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles
of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with
all peoples and all governments.
They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation
of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty
and the rule of law.
They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area.
They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the
preservation of peace and security.
They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty:
The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to
settle any international dispute in which they may be involved by peaceful means
in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered,
and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force
in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and
friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by
bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions
are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will
seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will
encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them.
In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, the Parties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack.
The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened.
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe
or North America shall be considered an attack against them all, and consequently
they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of
the right of individual or collective selfdefence recognised by Article 51 of
the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked
by taking forthwith, individually, and in concert with the other Parties, such
action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and
maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.
For the purpose of Article 5, an armed attack on one or more of the Parties
is deemed to include an armed attack:
- on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America,
on the Algerian Departments of France, on the territory of Turkey or on
the islands under the jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North Atlantic
area north of the Tropic of Cancer;
- on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when in or over these territories or any area in Europe in which occupation forces of any of the Parties were stationed on the date when the Treaty entered into force or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer.
The Treaty does not effect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting, in any
way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members
of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council
for the maintenance of international peace and security.
Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third State is in conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty.
The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented
to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The Council
shall be so organised as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The Council
shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall
establish immediately a defence committee which shall recommend measures for
the implementation of Articles 3 and 5.
The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State in
a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the
security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this Treaty. Any State so invited
may become a party to the Treaty by depositing its instrument of accession with
the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United
States of America will inform each of the Parties of the deposit of each such
instrument of accession.
This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by the Parties
in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. The instruments
of ratification shall be deposited as soon as possible with the Government of
the United States of America, which will notify all the other signatories of
each deposit. The Treaty shall enter into force between the States which have
ratified it as soon as the ratification of the majority of the signatories,
including the ratifications of Belgium, Canada, France, Luxembourg,
the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, have been deposited
and shall come into effect with respect to other States on the date of the deposit
of their ratifications.
After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time thereafter,
the Parties shall, if any of them so requests, consult together for the purpose
of reviewing the Treaty, having regard for the factors then affecting peace
and security in the North Atlantic area including the development of universal
as well as regional arrangements under the Charter of the United Nations for
the maintenance of international peace and security.
After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years, any Party may cease to be a Party one year after its notice of denunciation has been given to the Government of the United States of America, which will inform the Governments of the other Parties of the deposit of each notice of denunciation.
This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies will be transmitted by that government to the governments of the other signatories.