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This antibiotic originating from the Gram+ actinomycete Streptomyces venezulenza has about the same type of activity as cycloheximide, but than with an effect on prokaryotes instead of eukaryotes: it inhibits the peptidyl transferase activity of the 50S ribosomal subunit (the 50S is the larger half of the ribosome, both parts together translate mRNA+tRNA into the basic chain of aminoacids that make up a protein).
However, archaebacteria couldn't care less about chloramphenicol because of their unique and ancient type of ribosome, wich is different from the "standard" bacteria (eubacteria, the ones mentioned above under prokaryotes).

The genes coding for resistance for chloramphenicol are located on a resistance plasmid (R-plasmid), happily togerther with the genes coding for resistance for antibiotics like streptomycin, tetracycline and a few more. This makes it easier and more efficient for the bacteria to pass on their information about how to combat all those antibitics in the environment.

A broad-spectrum antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis; it was first isolated from the funguslike bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae but is now produced synthetically.

It is sold as:

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