A combustible petroleum distillate specially formulated with additives for high-temperature use, designed to inhibit accidental combustion due to sparking and other chance events.

Used, as the name implies, to power jet engines. Although this was the sole original use of the fuel (powering aircraft), modern vehicles may use it in a number of applications. Due to its use in equipment other than aircraft turbojets, it is sometimes referred to as turbine fuel. Other applications include:

As EdSausage has noded, there are many types of jet fuel. They differ in composition (distillation type, additives, coloring, etc.) depending on their intended use. These range from cold-weather types, to naval aircraft, to ship fuel, to commercial aviation. Their designation or name varies depending on context and locale, but some include:
Thanks EdSausage!

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