The City of Augusta, Georgia, USA was founded in 1735 by James Oglethorpe as a military outpost and trading station. The site, located below the fall line on the Savannah River, was in use by Native Peoples as a trading center and river crossing location at the time of the founding by European colonists. The name was in honor of Augusta, wife of Frederick Louis Hanover, the Prince of Wales.

Following the American Revolution, Augusta was the seat of government for the new state of Georgia until it was moved to Atlanta in 1795. Because of it's location, the city became a major trading center, offering easy access to the ports of Charleston (by rail) and Savannah (by river) for goods brought from the interior. During the American Civil War, Augusta was bypassed by the scorched earth March to the Sea by General Sherman, thus avoiding the fiery fate of Atlanta and Savannah.

The construction of a dam on the Savannah and a canal system through the city in 1847 with a major expansion in 1871 enabled an industrial base to be established, primarily in the production of cotton fabric. The location of the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta in 1828 and the establishment of Camp Gordon prior to World War I serve as the basis of Augusta's modern economy. Fort Gordon serves as the primary training location for the US Army's Signal School and Military Police School. Augusta is also a major medical center in the southeast.

Augusta is best known as the home of The Masters golf tournament at the Augusta National Golf Club and as the home of the "Godfather of Soul", James Brown.