Born in 1675:
Died in 1675:
Dutch painter Jan Vermeer.
Scottish mathematician James Gregory.
Dutch painter Gerrit Dou.
Dutch painter Allart van Everdingen.
Dutch composer Anthoni van Noordt.
English biblical scholar John Lightfoot.
English composer Robert Smith.
German composer Philipp Stolle.
Italian painter Giacomo Cortese (Jacques Courtois).
Spanish painter José Antolínez.
French poet Pierre Perrin.
French painter Louise Moillon.
French painter Gaspard Dughet (Poussin).
French explorer Father Jacques Marquette, see below.
Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de Saint-Simon, documenter
of French court life.
French general Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte
de Turenne, killed at Sasbach. Louis has Turenne buried at Saint-Denis.
French mathematician Gilles Personne de Roberval.
French mathematician Bernard Frenicle de Bessy.
English mathematician Edward Cocker.
Norwegian admiral Cort Sivertsen Adelaer.
Cecilius Calvert, second Lord Baltimore. His son Charles Calvert inherits the title.
- Domenico Contarini, Doge of Venice. Nicolo Sagredo succeeds him.
Ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur, see below. His nine-year-old
son Gobind Rai will be installed as Guru the following
10,000 from the plague in Malta.
Thousands in the combined Scanian-Dutch war, and in battles between Indians
and New England and Virginia colonists.
Events of 1675:
Charles II orders the construction of a naval
observatory at Greenwich, with John Flamsteed the first Astronomer
William Wycherley's play The Country Wife appears.
Thomas Otway's play Alcibiades appears.
John Dryden's play Aureng-Zebe (ref. Aurangzeb) appears.
- Giovanni Domenico Cassini discovers a Cassini Gap 'gap' in the rings of Saturn.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek peers at a drop of water through his 'microscope'
and sees small 'animalcules' (protozoa); he looks at a drop of blood
and sees red blood cells forthe first time..
Olaus Romer measures the speed of light.
Construction begins on a Christopher Wren-designed replacement for St.
Paul's Catherdral which had burned down in the 1666 Great Fire
Japanese whalers develop a technique of driving whales into large
nets in the oen sea, then harpooning them while entangled.
Japanese mariners land on the Bonin Islands for the first time.
Takeda Katsuyori tries for the last time to capture Kyoto and
unseat the Tokugawa shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, but a cavalry charge
at the Battle of Nagashino is pointless against muskets, and the Takeda
are no more.
New York governor Sir Edmund Andros declares that all land west
of the Connecticut River really belongs to New York's proprietor (James, Duke of York).
Wampanoag Indians rise up against encroachment on their lands
from Massachusetts settlers. Led by Wampanoag chief Metacomet,
known to the settlers as 'King Philip', Bands of indians
raid towns all over Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies, and into New
Hampshire and Maine. Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Connecticut
muster their militias. Mahican, Abenaki and other tribes join in, but
instead, the colonists attack the neutral Narraganset in Rhode Island.
The war is a stalemate until the colonists begin using native soldiers
to teach them guerilla tactics.
Farther south in Virginia, a cycle of violence between colonists and
local indians begins, and Governor William Berkeley fails to keep matters
from spirallnig out of control When Berkeley refuses his nephew Nathaniel
Bacon a commisison in hte militia, Bacon begins taking matters into his
own hands. In one unbelievable act of treachery, he bullies the Occaneechee
to raid other Indian villages, and then kills captors and captives alike
when they return.
Still farther south in Carolina, Chawahoc Indiands begin attacking settlements.
In neaby Albemarle, plolicical facitons are building aroung Thomas
Eastchurch and Thomas Miller, who want to be rid of Governor John Jenkins.
Father Marquette founds a mission at a Kaskaskia Indian settlement near
Utica, Illinois, but dies during his return to Michilimackinac.
Twenty-year-old Swedish King Karl XI has inherited an alliance
with Louis XIV that drags him into war. On Louis'
insistence, he sends an army of 10,000 across the Baltic into Swedish Pomerania
and attacks Brandenburg, but Brandenburgian forces defeat the army at
Fehrbellin. While Karl is tied down trying to hold onto
Pomerania, Danish (and Norwegian) King Christian
V sees an opportunity to recapture Scania (Skåne, Skaane), taken
from the Danes by Sweden only twenty years previously. While Christian
prepares to invade, Scanians treat the Danes as liberators and rise up
against the Swedes.
Louis himself is faring much better in his "Dutch War" (against The Netherlands,
The Holy Roman Empire, and Spain), occupying most of the Hapsburg
lands to his north and east of France. In January, Marshal Turenne defeats
a German army at Türkheim in Alsace so badly they flee
back across the Rhine. The French go on the offensive, invading Baden.
However, Turenne is killed in July 27 by artillery at the battle of Sasbach,
causing enough confusion to force a retreat back across the Rhine.
A different French army is defeated at Konzer Brücke outside Trier,
where the French commander is captured.
Trier residents accuse the city's Jews of helping the occupying
French troops, and go on a rampage looting Jewish stores and homes.
Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb's fanatical repression of other
Indian religions in the name of Islam causes many people to plead with
Tegh Bahadur for help. A now legendary exchange between Bahadur and his
son convinces him to journey to Delhi to challenge the Emperor to persuade
him to convert to Islam. (Bahadur knows what will happen and leaves instructions
that his son succeed him). Aurangzeb has Bahadur arrested and brought before
him in chains. Aurangzeb challenges Bahadur to produce miracles to
prove his authority; Bahadur refuses. The Emperor tries to
convert Bahadur through torture, and eventually has him beheaded.
Gobind Rai takes the surname Singh (lion) and begins a
campaign against the Mughals.
Osei Tutu becomes ruler of the Asante in Ghana.
1674 - 1675 - 1676
How They Were Made - 17th Century