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"Begone, you are not fit to command, go and put on petticoats." -Tecumseh, to British General Henry Proctor.

Born in 1813:

Died in 1813: Events of 1813:
  • Jane Austen publishes her novel Pride and Prejudice.
  • Robert Owen publishes A New View of Society, stating that a man's character is formed for him, not by him.
  • Giacomo Rossini premieres his first opera, L'Italiana in Algeri.
  • Prussian King Frederick Augustus III introduces a new medal, the Iron Cross.
  • The war between the United States and Great Britain continues.
    • In New England, there is talk of secession because of the war the South dragged them into.
    • (January 10) General Winchester, is waiting for William Henry Harrison (currently in Sandusky) when a call for help comes from Frenchtown, now Monroe, Michigan.   Not waiting any longer, he marches his troops north.
    • (January 19) Winchester arrives at Frenchtown and captures it, but his supply lines are stretched thin. Meanwhile Harrison is rushing his army north from the Maumee.
    • (January 23) The British (under Major General  Henry Proctor) and Indians (under Tecumseh) kill or capture  most of General Winchester's troops at the Battle of Raisin River, and retake Frenchtown.  Some Indian troops begin killnig the prisoners. Harrison falls back to the Maumee River and builds  Fort Meigs on the Maumee River (just above present-day Toledo),
    • (April 27) American forces capture York, Ontario but their commander Zebulon Pike is killed. General Henry Dearborn takes over.
    • (April 28) A British fleet captures a different Frenchtown, this one in Maryland.
    • (May 1) The British begin bombarding Fort Meigs.
    • (May 5) Fresh Kentucky troops arrive at Fort Meigs, and some of the British batteries are captured.  However, in the chaos afterward, most of the Kentucky soldiers are captured.  Indians begin killing prisoners; however, Tecumseh stops this, and berates General Proctor for standing by and letting it happen.  Harrison orders an assault against one of the British batteries, which  succeeds.
    • (May 9) Proctor breaks off the siege of Fort Meigs.
    • (May 27) American troops take Fort George in Ontario, and control the Niagara Peninsula.
    • (May 29) The British loot Sackett's Harbor, New York in retaliation for the American looting of York.
    • (June 6) Stoney Creek
    • (August 2) Battle of Fort Stephenson.  General Proctor leaves the Maumee river and attempts to capture Harrison's main supply depot near Lower Sandusky in Ohio.
    • (September 10) Oliver Hazard Perry's fleet destroys the British fleet on Lake Erie.  The British must evacuate Detroit, and Harrison is in pursuit.
    • (October 5) Harrison catches up with the fleeing British at Moraviantown. At this Battle of the Thames. Tecumseh is slain, and with him, any hope of an Indian confederacy.
    • (October 14) The United States signs a provisional armistice with hostile Northern Indian tribes.
    • (October 26) 7,000 American troops attempting to capture Montreal are defeated by 750 Canadian and Indian troops at the Battle of Chateaugay.  These troops had been drawn out of the forces occupying hte Niagara peninsula, leaving it guarded by militia.
    • (December 10) The militia begin going home as their terms of service end.  American general McClure must evacuate Fort George (opposite Fort Niagara).  They also born Newark, Ontario nearby.
    • (December 18) British forces capture Fort Niagara in a surprise assault.  British General Riall then loots and burns Lewiston, Black Rock, and Buffalo, in retaliation for Newark.
  • Andrew Jackson has an interesting year.
    • Jackson's Tennessee Volunteers have been waiting around for something to do, so they're given something to do. Sort of.
    • There is a civil war going on among the Creek Indians at this time.  One Faction, the Red Sticks, is following Tecumseh's call to unite against the whites.  Led by Chief William Weatherford, aka Red Eagle,
      • (April 15) Meanwhile, Wilkinson is off besieging Mobile hoping to take it from the Spanish.
      • (July 27) Battle of Burnt Corn. Some whites and mixed-blood Creeks attack a group of Red Sticks carrying supplies given to them by the Spanish in Florida at a crossing of Burnt Corn Creek in Alabama.  The Red Sticks drive them off, and the attackers fall back to the plantation of one Henry Mims and build a stockade, calling it "Fort Mims".
      • (August 30) Red Eagle leads an attack on Fort Mims which kills 250. Reports of the carnage horrify the country.
      • (September 4) A feud between Andrew Jackson and Colonel Thomas Hart Benton results in a gunfight in Nashville with Jackson and Colonel John Coffee on one side, and Benton and his brother Jesse on the other.  Jackson is severely wounded in the shoulder, he almost loses his arm.
      • (October 7) Jackson, still recovering from his fight, leads his troops south from Tennessee.
      • (November 3) Americans under Coffee (including Davy Crockett) retaliate against the Creeks. They wipe out the Creek village of Tallushatchee, killing 180.
      • (November 9) Jackson and his troops destroy the Creek village of Talladega, and kill 500.
    • (December) Most of the Volunteers go home after their enlistments end, over Jackson's objections.
  • Meanwhile, in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte is also having an interesting year.
    • Napoleon squandered 400,000 troops the previous year in a foolish invasion of Russia.  Half of these troops were German, not French.  Now the Germans' love of Napoleon has evaporated; there are uprisings all over Germany, and Russia has plenty of troops.  Napoleon still has a few victories in him, but Russia and four other countries (Prussia, Austria, Sweden, and Great Britain) unite into a Sixth Coalition to slowly, inexorably, push him out of Germany.
      • (January) The Russians lay seige to Danzig.
      • (January 25) Napoleon signs a new treay with Pope Pius VII.
      • (February 18) Tsar Alexander I leads his army into Warsaw.
      • (March 4) The Russians march into Berlin.
      • (March 16) Prussia declares war against Napoleon.
      • (May 2) Napoleon has managed to scrape together an army of 500,000 conscripts from France!  He defeats the Russians and Prussians at Lutzen
      • (May 18) The Swedish army under Crown Prince Bernadotte, formerly one of Napoleon's marhsals, lands at Stralsund in Pomerania.  Ah, but he's on the other side now.
      • (May 19-22) Napoleon defeats the Russians and Prussians at Bautzen.
      • (July 15-29) Napoleon tries to make peace at the Congress of Prague.  The Pope disavows his January treaty.
      • (August 11) Austria declares war against France.
      • (August 27) Napoleon defeats the Allied armies at Dresden, but Marshal Moreau is killed.   Napoleon's last big victory.
      • (October 16) Poniatowski is made a Marshal of France.
      • (October 16-19) Napoleon defeated at the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig.  The largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars is a disaster for Napoleon, as a river crossing is blown up prematurely, trapping tens of thousands of troops on the other side.  Many drown trying to swim the river.  From here on, it's all retreat for Napoleon.
      • (October 30-31) After a lot of fighting, the Allies capture Hanau near Mainz.
      • (Novermber 1) Napoleon falls back across the Rhine.
      • (November 16) The Allied army, now with British troops, conquers Holland.  King William is put back on the throne.
      • (December 21-31) The Allied armies cross the Rhine.
    • Having softened up the French in Spain the previous year, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, drives them out.
      • (May 22) Wellington bids farewell to Portugal with 70,000 British and Portuguese troops.
      • (June 8) The Spanish Inquisition is suppressed.  Bet you didn't expect that.
      • (June 15) The entire army is across the Ebro.
      • (June 21) Wellington crushes the army of Joseph Bonaparte at Vitoria. Joseph is neutralized, and the remnants of the French army begin fleeing across the Pyrenees.
      • (July 14) Wellington begins capturing passes in the Pyrenees (Roncesvalles).
      • (July 25) Marshal Soult arrives to take charge of the French army.  The British are pushed out of the passes.
      • (July 30) Soult tries to move his army, but Wellington attacks and routs it.
      • (November 1) Napoleon decodes to annex Catalonia to France. WTF?
      • (November 10) Wellington advances down out of the Pyrenees into France.
      • (December 10-13) The British advance a little more at the Battle of St-Pierre.
  • While all this is going on, new countries are being formed in Latin America.

1812 - 1813 - 1814

How they Were Made - 19th Century

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