The Brazilian Bombshell

At Halloween of 2000, the popular web cartoon Homestar Runner made reference not only to Carmen Miranda, but also to the fact that she'll forever be mixed up in the minds of the public with the Chiquita Banana Lady in United Fruit Company advertising. Lead Character Homestar Runner comments to character Strong Bad, "nice Banana Lady outfit." Strong Bad responds, "dammit, for the last time, I'm not the Chiquita Banana Lady, I'm freakin' Carmen Miranda!"

Arguably no other female singer and actress endures so well as a pop-culture icon than Carmen Miranda, who passed away at age 46 in 1955. And certainly few other female super-stars are remembered quite as warmly as is Miranda. None have etched a singular, visual image in American pop culture moreso than she.

Who's The Most Visually Recognizable Female Celebrity of the 20th Century?

A famous print ad for Blackglama® mink furs asked the question "What becomes a legend most?" That headline, combined with the ultra-recognizable famous women pictured under it, created a very clever combination which won a Clio award for print advertising. Had Carmen Miranda been alive at the time, I'd hazard a guess that she'd have been one of the stars featured wearing one of the exclusive hairy garments.

Sure, the Harold Arlen song "Somewhere Over The Rainbow" brings to mind Judy Garland; but the song evokes a young, innocent Judy, long before the troubles which plagued her until her life ended too early as well. But what visual comes to mind when one remembers Garland? The stylized tuxedo and hat from "Get Happy?" Sure, that's the most familiar but it's not ingrained in the public consciousness, only that of her fan base. Her daughter, Liza Minnelli is recognized immediately for her trademark haircut and eyes. But as a celebrity, Liza, although talented, has over the years turned into an emoted caricature of her mother. Her signature tuxedo and top-hat outfit in the movie and Broadway production of "Cabaret" was nearly a carbon-copy of her mother's "Get Happy" get-up. Sadly, Ms. Minnelli's antics vis-a-vis drug and alcohol abuse are the stuff of legend, another more awful way her own life mirrors that of her mother's.

Talking about cross-dressing, another legend, (who by the way was one of the women who appeared in the Blackglama mink ads) Julie Andrews, earned nominations and Oscars for characters with distinctive appearances. But which one is most identifiable? The umbrella-wielding (Oscar-winning) "Mary Poppins?" Maria, the nun-turned-nanny in "The Sound of Music?" Or was it a Minelli-esque cross-dresser in "Victor/Victoria?"

"Mommie Dearest" the book and movie about Joan Crawford, another Hollywood legend, reminds us of a woman with trademark eyebrows and a lot of films to her credit who was also a "Queen of Mean," at least as far as her relationships with the females in her life, particularly her daughter, go. Another "Queen of Mean" and pop-culture icon, Bette Davis was said to have uttered the following upon the death of Crawford: "My mother always told me to speak good of the dead. She's dead. That's good."

Mae West's time was too early. Elizabeth Taylor is of late remembered more for her penchant for gemstones and her many husbands than for her accomplishments on the silver screen. And not much of her has been seen in public since her boy/girlfriend flew off to exile in Dubai.

Princess Grace and Princess Diana both accomplished a lot and endeared themselves to the public in their own right. But what visual comes to mind beside perhaps a bejeweled tiara when thinking of these great women?

Okay, Eartha Kitt was Batman's "Cat-Woman," and to this day, over 80 years of age, can purr like a kitten with the best of 'em. But ask a twentysomething or even a thirtysomething today "who is Eartha Kitt?" They'll probably respond, "huh?"

Barbra Streisand was born with her trademark. That nose. The one her mother assumed would prevent her from becoming a star of song and cinema. Troubled singer Billie Holiday affected an orchid or other tropical flower in her hair, as many of her publicity photos demonstrate. But when asked to remember Holiday, I'd hazard a guess most people would mention her voice, her phrasing, or her legendary addiction to heroin and alcohol.

Sombrero Con La Ensalada De Fruta

Who can forget the stunning face of Carmen Miranda, luscious lips done in Ruby Red color. Who can forget the exotic gowns, the platform sandals (some of which rose a full six inches) exposing a Ruby Red pedicure. And surely one would've had to be raised in the woods by wolves not to have been exposed to Miranda's trademark headdress, a veritable fruit salad held together with satin ribbon and exotic flowers. Carmen Miranda's style re-defined camp.

Camp depends on a glittering surface that often resists penetration. Carmen Miranda is one of camp's enduring icons, the flamboyant outsider who makes us love her through sheer force of personality. The "lady in the tutti-fruitti hat" brought to American wartime audiences an extravagantly seductive surface: the exoticism of South America, a sensuality tempered by caricature, and outlandish costumes and fruit-laden "hats" that have an unsuspected origin in the black slums of Brazil.

— Gary Morris, reviewing Helena Solberg's documentary Carmen Miranda: Bananas Is My Business

Carmen Miranda paved the way for Latin sex-pot and musician Charo. But where Charo is wild and loud, Miranda was exotic and understated. Indeed, the first thing that comes to mind when thinking about Carmen Miranda is an assertive-looking Latina dressed colorfully and wearing an over-the-top hat, typically decorated with fruit, particularly bananas, Orchids or other things tropical.

Charo's "Cuchi-Cuchi" and suggestive hip gyrations exuded overt sexuality. Miranda's genius was perhaps not even realized by her; her costumes exuded sexuality but it was the association with bright-yellow phallic symbols that became her trademark visual double entendre. Ah, a Freudian field-day.

Early Days — Chapeaux et Chanteuse

Little wonder that Miranda, the daughter of a Portuguese barber and his stay-at-home wife, first found work as a hat maker, long before fame and fortune caught up with her. Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha was born in Marco de Canaveses, Portugal on 9 February 1909. The family moved to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1910, where four out of her five siblings were born.

Her eldest sister, Olinda, was diagnosed with tuberculosis when Carmen was age 14. To help with the expense of Olinda's treatment, Carmen started working at a boutique in Rio called La Femme Chic, where she learned how to make hats. Soon she started her own hat business and her wares sold incredibly well. The business became so profitable she hired her brother to help her with the business.

By age 17, Carmen had already acted in low-budget movies. Her big break came when she was introduced to Brazilian radio personality Josue de Barros. She sang on the radio and finally cut her first record in 1929, "Samba Não vá Simbora" for the Brunswick record label. She recorded four songs for RCA Victor in Brazil, and in August of 1930 signed a contract with the company. The same year, she earned critical acclaim in her first major theatrical role in "Vai dar o que Falar."

By 1937, Carmen had switched associations with radio stations, signing a then-record-breaking $1 million contract with Radio Tupi, making her the highest-paid radio singer in Brazil. By that time she'd already starred in four movies with her sister Aurora. She was also performing live in famous venues such as the Urca Cassino and the Copacabana Cassino in Buenos Aires.

Part of her musical success was based on her fresh and unique interpretations of the samba, a musical beat and dance which originated in the black slums of Brazil. This new sound spread throughout South America like wildfire. By 1939, she'd recorded over three hundred singles.

Banana Business

Miranda's sixth movie, Banana da Terra, included a scene with her dressed in a banana costume, singing a song; "O que e que a baiana tem?" The movie, and the song, were both smash hits. She was seen by producer Lee Shubert (of the still-existent Shubert Theater family in New York), who convinced her to break her contracts with Brazilian radio and come to America to perform on Broadway. She did so on one condition, that her band, "Bando da Lua," accompany her. Shubert agreed and Miranda and her band ventured to America on May 4, 1939.

Miranda created a sensation doing the Latin portion of an international-flavored revue on broadway called Streets of Paris. The theater-goers sympathized with her, says her website, due to her strong accent and (occasionally humorous) mispronunciation of English. The language barrier proved no barrier for Carmen. She became a press sensation. Saks Fifth Avenue made a fortune selling licensed copies of accessories used by Miranda. Within one year, she'd been able to send $40,000 back to her family. That's $40,000 1939 dollars. Do the math.

By 1940, 20th Century Fox asked Miranda to star in Down Argentine Way. A huge success with the U.S. audience, it nonetheless was banned in Argentina for the blatant stereotyping which presented their country in a very silly way. Worse, this film and a string of other Technicolor "South-of-the-Border" type films angered the people of her home country for selling-out to the silly image Americans had of South Americans. She returned to Brazil for her sister's wedding and another family function, but was greeted by and large with tirades from the press. Her former adoring public there turned their backs on her. She was made to feel quite unwelcome, even booed during a performance.

On a better note, The New York Times said of her first U.S. film effort, "Miss Miranda sings 'South American Way' and a few Spanish trifles scorchingly, but we don't see enough of her." Fox went on to include Miranda in the war-time hits The Gang's All Here, Greenwich Village, Springtime in the Rockies, Something for the Boys, and Four Jills in a Jeep. After the war she received good reviews in Doll Face. The last film she'd do for Fox was If I'm Lucky.

I say 20 words in English. I say money, money, money, and I say hot dog! I say yes, no and I say money, money, money and I say turkey sandwich and I say grape juice.

— Carmen Miranda

Due in part to her combined stage and screen career, she was making hundreds of thousands of dollars annually by the end of World War II. By 1946, Carmen Miranda earned the distinction of the "actress who paid the highest amount of income tax in the United States."

Trouble in Paradise

She became ill in 1943 and underwent emergency surgery for a "stomach ailment." She began to worry about becoming sick again, which spiraled down into depression, exhaustion, and drug abuse. By 1944, a general infection nearly claimed her life.

She signed with United Artists in 1947, appearing with Groucho Marx in Copacabana. The movie tanked, but out of it came a smash hit record for Carmen, "Tico-tico No Fuba." She married the director of the film, David Sebastian, the following year.

In 1948, she miscarried. She'd always wanted children but at age 38 she was told it was too dangerous given her poor health. She and Sebastian separated for a time, but later reconciled. A second honeymoon was enjoyed in San Francisco.

Also in 1948 she starred with Elizabeth Taylor in A Date With Judy. Nancy Goes to Rio followed in 1950. By this time, the Carmen Miranda "novelty" was starting to dry up, so she went on tour doing live singing dates with her band, She toured the U.S. and appeared frequently in Las Vegas, performing for the opening of the New Frontier casino and elsewhere. Her world tour was a whirlwind of performances, all involving stressful choreography. Her international appearances, however, were acclaimed critically and well-attended.

Her final movie was Scared Stiff, with Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis and Dorothy Malone. Lewis had a field day with her, sadly. It may have been funny to some audiences, but it really was a pathetic spoof. Her feelings about the film deepened her depression. She resorted to electroconvulsive therapy and finally traveled to Brazil after a fourteen year absence for rest and relaxation. Under the care of a doctor, she spent nearly two months away from the public.

Fighting Back

Under the facade of humor and ignorance dwelt a soul full of passion and commitment. Her English-language faux-pas were intentional; she spoke English well and also had a fluent command of Spanish, Portuguese and French. When she visited Brazil in 1940, she responded to the accusations that she'd sold-out to American stereotypes of Latinos with the song Disseram Que Voltei Americanizada (They Say I've Come Back Americanized). A song she performed in Brazil and in U.S. night club acts, Bananas Is My Business, got its title from a line in one of her movies and was a clever rebuttal to those who'd criticize her image.

Her image, nonetheless, was problematic. No matter how hard she tried, she couldn't break away from being type-cast, fruit headdress, broken English and all. Worse, her image was indeed a kind of amalgam of Brazilian, Mexican and Cuban stereotypes. She had to endure constant criticism from the Latin-American community because of her failure to keep her heritage "pure."

The movie industry had taken its toll on her personal identity. She began her trip down the road of fame with an upbeat personality, sense of humor and avant-garde style. She'd embraced the black Brazilian culture of her childhood and used it to entertain and delight audiences. She was an accomplished painter.

Near the end of her life, however, she'd become a caricature of herself; an example of gaudy excess. She couldn't escape.

The End

On August 5, 1955 Carmen Miranda was taping scenes for the Jimmy Durante television show. During a particularly difficult dance number she slipped and fell, complaining she was out of breath. She left the taping and returned to her home. A party had been scheduled for that evening, in part to celebrate her TV appearance. She appeared to be in good humor and danced a bit and toasted and sang. She retired to her room at 2:30 a.m. Her husband found her the next morning lying on the floor on the bathroom threshold. Apparently, she'd had a mild heart attack during the Durante taping; followed by a fatal episode later that evening.

Services were held in Hollywood. Her body was returned to Rio de Janeiro for burial. Nearly one million Brazilians lined the streets to pay their respects.

Her family insisted that the Durante show be aired. Her final words, however, were cut from the program.

Her costumes and other personal belongings were donated to a Carmen Miranda museum in Brazil.

The intersection of Hollywood Boulevard and Orange Drive was named "Carmen Miranda Square" in 1998. Her niece, also an entertainer, was in attendance.

She has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, and her hand and footprints in cement outside the former Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood were the first made by a South American actress.



Directors: Ademar Gonzaga and Humberto Mauro
Script: Joracy Camargo
Semi - documentary: Real carnaval and studio scenes of Carmen singing
Songs: Prá Você Gostar de Mim; Yayá, Yoyô, Carnavá tá Ahi; Vamos Brincar

1933 - A VOZ DO CARNAVAL - Cinédia
Directors: Ademar Gonzaga and Humberto Mauro
Script: Joracy Camargo
Cast: Gina Cavaliere, Lu Marival, Regina Maura, Elsa Moreno, Nana Figueredo, Lamartine Babo, Paolu Gonçalvez, Apolo Correa, Henrique Chaves, Jararaca & Ratinho
Semi - documentary: Real scenes of carnaval and in studio
Songs: Moleque Indigesto; Good-bye

1935 - ALÔ, ALÔ BRASIL! - Waldow - Cinédia
Directors: Wallance Downey, João de Barro and Alberto Ribeiro
Cast: Aurora Miranda, Dircinha Batista, Cordélia Ferreira, Elisa Coelho, César Ladeira, Francisco Alves, Barbosa Junior, Mário Reis, Jorge Murad, Custódio Mesquita, Almirante, Mesquitinha, Ary Barroso, Manoelito Teixeira, Arnaldo Pescuma, Manuel Monteiro, Afonso Stuart, Bando da Lua, os 4 Diabos, Simon Bountman´s Orchestra
Song: Primavera no Rio

1935 - ESTUDANTES - Waldow - Cinédia
Director: Wallace Downey
Cast: Aurora Miranda, Sylvinha Mello, Carmen Silva, Dulce Wheyting, Mesquitinha, César Ladeira, Barbosa Junior, Almirante, Jorge Murad, Mario Reis, Afonso Osório, Elio Pereira, Bando da Lua, Irmãos Tapajós, Benedicto Lacerda and regional band, Simon Bountman´s Orchestra
Songs: E bateu-se a Chapa; Sonho de Papel

1936 - ALÔ, ALÔ CARNAVAL - Waldow - Cinédia
Director: Adhemar Gonzaga
Cast: Aurora Miranda, Eloisa Helena, Alzirinha Camargo, dulce Wheyting, Dircinha Batista, Lelita Rosa, Francisco Alves Mário Reis, Jayme, Luiz Barbosa, Pinto Filho, Oscarito, Almirante, Muraro, Hervé Cordovil, Pery Ribas, Joel e Gaucho, Irmãs Pagãs, Banda da Lua, Os 4 Diabos, Simon Bountman´s Orchestra, Benedicto Lacerda and regional band
Songs: Querido Adão; Cantores do Rádio (com Aurora)

1939 - BANANA DA TERRA - Sonofilme
Director: João de Barro
Cast: Aurora Miranda, Dircinha ;batista, Linda Batista, Emilinha Borba, Neyde Martins, Almirante, Oscarito, Orlando Silva, Aloysio de Oliveira, Jorge Murad, Carlos Galhardo, Lauro Borges, Castro Barbosa, Mário Silva, Paulo Netto, Alvarenga e Betinho, Banda da Lua, Napolão Tavares Orchestra, Romeu Silva´s Orchestra and artists of the Cassino da Urca
Songs: Pirolito (with Almirante); O que é que a Baiana tem?


20th Century Fox - (Color)
Cast: Betty Grable, Charlotte Greenwood, Don Ameche, Bando da Lua
Songs: South American Way; Mamãe eu Quero; Bambu, Bambu
Main character: Carmen Miranda

20th Century Fox - (Color)
Cast: Don Ameche, Alice Faye, Bando da Lua, Flores Brothers
Songs: Chica Chica Bom Chic; Cai Cai; I, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yi, I Like You Very Much
Main character: Carmen Miranda

20th Century Fox - (Color)
Cast: Alice Faye, John Payne, Cesar Romero, Bando da Lua.
Songs: A week end in Havana; When I Love I Love; Rebola Bola; The Nango
Main character: Rosita Rivas

20th Century Fox - (Color)
Cast: Betty Grable, John Payne, Cesar Romero, Charlotte Greenwood, Edward Everett Horton, Trudy Marshal, Jackie Gleason, Harry James and His Orchestra, Bando da Lua
Songs: Chattanooga Choo Choo; Tique Taque do Meu Coração
Main character: Rosita

20th Century Fox - (Color)
Cast: Alice Faye, Phil Baker, Benny Goodman, Eugene Pallatte, Charlotte Greenwood, Edward Everett Horton, Tony De Marco, James Ellison, Dave Wollock.
Songs: Aquarela do Brasil; The Lady in the Tutti Frutti Hat; Paducah; You Discover You're in New York; A Journey to a Star
Main character: Dorita

20th Century Fox - Black and White
Cast: Kay Francis, Martha Raye, Dick Haymes, Betty Grable, Carole Landis, Jimmy Dorsey and Orchestra
Songs: I, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yi, I Like You Very Much

20th Century Fox - (Color)
Cast: Don Ameche, Vivian Blaine, William Bendix, Emil Rameau
Songs: O que é que a Baiana Tem? ; Quando eu Penso na Bahia; Give Me a Band and Bandana; I´m Just Wild About Harry; I Like to be Loved by You
Main character: Princesa Querida

20th Century Fox - (Color)
Cast: Vivian Blaine, Michael O´Shea, Cora Williams, Judy Holliday, Perry Como, Banda da Lua
Songs: Batuca Nego; Samba Boogie; Wouldn´t it be Nice?
Main character: Chiquita Hart

20th Century Fox - Black and White
Cast: Vivian Blaine, Martha Stewart, Perry Como, Dennis O´Keefe, Michael Dunna
Songs: Chico - Chico ( From Porto Rico)
Main character: Chita

20th Century Fox - Black and White
Cast: Vivian Blaine, Perry Como, Harry James e Orquestra
Songs: Batucada; Follow the Band; Bet Your Botton Dollar
Main character: Michele O´Toole

United Artists - Black and White
Cast: Groucho Marx, Andy Russel, Gloria Jean, Steve Cochran, Merle McHugh
Songs: Tico Tico; How to Make a Hit with Fifi; Let´s do the Copacabana; Je vous aime; I Haven´t a Thing to Sell
Main characters: Carmen Navaro and Mademoiselle Fifi

Metro Goldwyn - Mayer - (Color)
Cast: Jane Powell, Elizabeth Taylor, Selena Royle, Wallace Beery, Robert Stack, Xaveir Cugat e Orquestra
Songs: Cuanto le Gusta; Cooking with Glass; It´s a Most Unusual Day
Main character: Rosita Conchellas

Metro Goldwyn - Mayer - (Color)
Cast: Jane Powell, Ann Sothern, Barry Sullivan, Lois Calhern, Nella Walker, Bando da Lua
Songs: Baião Ca Room ´Pa Pa; Ipse-Ai-O
Main character: Marina Rodriguez

Paramount - Black and White
Cast: Elizabeth Scott, Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Dorothy Malone
Songs: The Bongo Bingo, The Enchilada Man
Main character: Carmelita Castina



— South American Way (Jimmy Mc Hugh, Al Dubin)
— Touradas em Madrid (João de Barro, Alberto Ribeiro)
— O que É que a Bahiana Tem? (Dorival Caymmi)
— Marchinha do Grande Gallo - Co, Co, Co, Co, Co, Co, Ró (Lamartine Babo, Paulo Barbosa)
— Mamãe Eu Quero - I Want My Mama (Jararaca, Vicente Paiva)
— Bambo do Bambu (Bambu-Bambu) (Patrício Teixeira, Donga)

— I Like You Very Much I, Yi, Yi, Yi, Yi (Harry Warn, Mack Gordon)
— Alô, Alô (André Filho)
— Chica Chic Boom Chic (Harry Warren, Mack Gordon)
— Bambalê (Brant Horta)
— Cae Cae (Roberto Martins)
— Arca de Noé (Nássara Sá Rotis)
— A Week-End in Havana (Harry Warren, Mack Gordon)
— Diz Que Tem… (Vicente Paiva, Aníbal Cruz)

— When I Love, I Love (Mack Gordon, Harry Warren)
— Rebola, Bola (Aloysio de Oliveira, Nestor Amaral, Brant Horta)
— The Man With The Lollypop Song (Mack Gordon, Harry Waren)
— Não Te Dou a Chupeta (Silvino Netto, Plínio Brettas)
— Manuello ( Jack Yellen, Sam E. Fain)
— Thank You North America (Jack Yellen, Sam E. Fain)
— Chattanooga Choo Choo (Harry Warren, Mack Gordon, Aloysio de Oliveira)
— Tic-Tac do Meu Coração (Alcyr Pires Vermelho, Walfrido Silva)

— Passo do Kanguru (Brazilly Willy) (Haroldo Lobo, Milton de Oliveira)
— Boneca de Pixe (Ary Barroso, Luiz Iglezias)
— Upa Upa (Ary Barroso)
— Tico-Tico no Fubá (Zequinha de Abreu, E. Drake, Aloysio de Oliveira)

— The Matador (Touradas em Madrid) (João de Barro, A. Ribeiro, Ray Gilbert, B. Russel)
— Cuanto Le Gusta? (Gabriel Ruiz, Ray Gilbert)

— Asi Asi (I See, I See) (Eddie Gomez, Ray Gilbert)
— The Wedding Samba (A. Ellestein, Allan Small, J. Liebowitz)
— Baião Ca-Room' Pa Pa (Humberto Teixeira, Luiz Gonzaga, Ray Gilbert)
— Ipse - Ai - O (Ypsee - I - O) (Ray Gilbert)


— Não Vá Sim'bora (Josué de Barros)
— Se o Samba é Moda (Josué de Barros)

— Triste Jandaya (Josué de Barros)
— Dona Balbina ( Josué de Baros)
— Yáyá, Yôyô (Josué de Barros)
— Barucuntum (J. Curangi)
— Mamãe Não Quero (A. de Carvalho)
— Pr'a Você Gostar de Mim (Joubert de Carvalho)
— O Meu Amor Tem (André Filho)
— Eu Quero Casar Com Você (André Filho)
— Tenho um Novo Namorado (Desmond Gerald)
— Espere que Preciso me Pintar (Desmond Gerald)
— O Nêgo do Samba (Ary Barroso, Marques Porto, Luiz Peixoto)
— Gostinho Diferente (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Neguinho (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Será Você (Carlos Medida)
— De Quem Eu Gosto (Randoval Montenegro)
— Os Home Implica Comigo (Carmen Miranada , Alfredo Vianna)
— Moreno Bonito (Josué de Barros)
— Miss Sertão (Plínio de Brito, Domingos Magarinos)
— A Mulhé Quando não Qué (R. S. de Mello)
— É com Você que Eu Queria (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Esta Vida É muito Engraçada (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Si No me Quieres Más (C. Nery, Luiz Rubinstein)
— Muchachito de Mi Amor (Randoval Montenegro)
— Recepção a Carmen Miranda (Plínio C. Ferraz)
— Malandro (André filho)
— Cuidado, Hein! (André Filho)
— Eu Gosto da Minha Terra (R. Montenegro)
— Veja Você (Rogério Guimarães)

— Por Ti Estou Preso (Carmen Miranda, Josué de Barros)
— Se Não Me Tens Amor (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Eu Sou do Barulho (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Quero Ver Você Chorar (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Deixa Disso (Ary Barroso)
— Sou da Pontinha (Ary Barroso)
— Carnaval Tá Ahi (Alfredo Vianna, Josué de Barros)
— Vamos Brincar (Josué de Barros)
— Já Te Avisei (João Martins)
— O Castigo Hás de Encontrar (R.S. de Mello)
— Quero Ficar Mais um Pouquinho (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Como Gosto de Você (Guito Iteperê)
— Gira! (Ary Barroso, Marquês Porto)
— Bemzinho (Ary Barroso)
— Absolutamente (Joubert de Carvalho, Olegário Marianno)
— Foi Elle...Foi Ella (Joubert de Carvalho, Paulo R.)
— Não Tens Razão (João Freitas Ferreira)
— E Depois (João Freitas Ferreira)
— Tem Gente Ahí! (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Amor! Amor! (Joubert de Carvalho)

— Ya Canta El Gallo (Y. Scolati Almeyda)
— Adeus! Adeus! (André Filho)
— Bambolêo (André Filho)
— Quero Só Você (André Filho)
— Sonhei Que Era Feliz (Ary Barroso)
— Isto É Xodó (Ary Barroso)
— E de Trampolim (J. de Carvalho)
— Se Você Quer (O. Marianno)
— Isola! Isola! (Ildefonso Norat, Murilo Caldas)
— Vou Faze Trança (Oscar Cardona)
— É Findo o Nosso Amor (Gonçalves de Oliveira)
— P'ra Judia de Você (Oscar Cardona, Carlos Medina)
— Feitiço Gorado (J. B. da Silva)
— Nosso Amor Veio d'um Sonho (Ary Barroso)
— Não Vae Zangar (João Martins)
— Quando Me Lembro (André Filho)
— Por Causa de Você (André Filho)
— O Gatinho (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Tenho Um Novo Amor (Agenor de Oliveira)
— Mulato de Qualidade (André Filho)
— Para um Samba de Cadência (Randoval Montenegro)
— Assim Sim (Francisco Alves, Noel Rosa, Ismael Silva)
— Espera um Pouquinho (André Filho)

— Good-Bye (Assis Valente)
— Etc... (Assis Valente)
— Piassaba Pr'a Vassoura (Floriano Ribeiro Pinto)
— Quando Você Morrer (Ernesto dos Santos, Aldo Taranto)
— Pode ir Embora (Paulo de Góes, Oscar M. Soares)
— Olá!... (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Foi Você Mesmo (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Moleque Indigesto (Lamartine Babo)
— Chegou a Turma Bôa (Walfrido P. da Silva)
— Falla, Meu Bem (André Filho)
— Lua amiga (André Filho)
— Violão (Mário Paulo)
— Moleque Convencido (Mário Paulo)
— Tempo Perdido (Ataulpho Alves)
— O Despreso é Minha Arma ( Naylor A. de Sá Rego)
— Chegou a Hora da Fogueira (Lamartine Babo)
— Tarde na Serra (Lamartine Barro)
— Elogio da Raça (Assis Valente)
— P'ra Quem Sabe dar Valor (Assis Valente)
— Eu Queria Ser --Yo-Yo— (Lamartine Babo, João de Barro)
— Socega o Teu Corpo, Socega! (Joubert de Carvalho)
— As Cinco Estações do Anno (Lamartine Babo)
— Que Bom que Estava (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Bom Dia, Meu Amor (Joubert de Carvalho, Olegário Marianno)
— Por Amor a Este Branco (Custódio Mesquita)
— Só em Saber (Ideraldo Barcellos, Arlindo Jacob)
— Tão Grande, Tão Bobo... (Assis Valente)
— Institucionalissimamente (Hervé Cordovil)
— Não Há Razão Para Haver Barulho (Walfrido Silva)
— Perdi Minha Mascote (João Machado Guedes)

— Dois a Dois (2x2) (Lamartine Babo)
— Marchinha Nupcial (Lamartine Babo)
— Lulu (Assis Valente)
— Sapateia no Chão (Assis Valente)
— Me Respeite...Ouvio! (Walfrido Silva)
— Alô... Alô? (André Filho)
— Eu Quero Te Dar um Beijo (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Uma Vezinha Só - (Joubert de Carvalho)
— OK... (Jurandyr Santos)
— Eu Também... (Lamartine Babo)
— Por Especial Favor (Na Batucada da Vida)
— Tenho Raiva do Luar (Assis Valente)
— P'ra que Amar (Assis Valente)
— Acorda São João (Assis Valente)
— Balão que Muito Sobe (Ary Barroso, Oswaldo Santiago)
— Isto É Lá com Santo Antônio! (Lamartine Babo)
— Um Pouquinho de Amor (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Sapatinho da Vida (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Ao Voltar do Samba (Synval Silva)
— Alvorada (Synval Silva)
— Primavera no Rio (João de Barro)
— Mocidade (Milton Amaral)
— Retiro da Saudade (Antônio Nassara, Noel Rosa)
— Ninho Deserto (Ewaldo Ruy)
— Quando a Saudade Apertar (André Filho)
— Teu Feitiço me Pegô (Benedito Lacerda, Oswaldo Silver)
— Minha Embaixada Chegou (Assis Valente)
— ...Té Já (Assis Valente)
— A.B.C do Amor (Ary Barroso)
— Tome Mais um Chopp (Nássara)

— Recadinho do Papae Noel (Assis Valente)
— Por Causa de Você Yoyô (Assis Valente)
— Coração (Synval Silva)
— Comigo Não!... (H. Catumby, Valentina Biosca)
— Entre Outras Coisas (Alcebíades Barcellos, Walfrido Silva)
— Seu Abóbora (Hervé Cordovil, Lamartine Babo)
— Moreno (Alcebíades Barcellos, Dan Mallio Carneiro)
— Sorrisos (Hervé Cordovil, João de Barro)
— Mulatinho Bamba (Ary Barrosos, Kid Pepe)
— Anoiteceu (Ary Barroso)
— Nunca Mais (Alcebíades Barcellos, Armando V. Marçal)
— Não Me Fala Nada (Alcebíades Barcellos, Waldemar Costa)
— O Samba é Carioca (Oswaldo Silva)
— Agora Não (Walfrido Silva, Aldo Taranto)
— Vou Espalhando por Ahí (Assis Valente)


— Foi Numa Noite Assim (Arlindo Marques, Roberto Roberti)
— Queixas de Colombina (Arlindo Marques, Roberto Roberti)
— Sonho de Papel (Alberto Ribeiro)
— Fogueira do Meu Coração (Mario Travessos, A. L. Pimentel)
— E Bateu-se a Chapa (Assis Valente)
— Isso Não se Atura (Assis Valente)
— Roseira Branca (Oswaldo Ribeiro, Walfrido Silva)
— Si Gostares de Batuque (José Gelsomino)
— Tic-Tic do Meu Coração (Alcyr Pires Vermelho, Walfrido Silva)
— Fructo Prohibido (Custódio Mesquita, Jayme Távora)
— Primavera (Milton Amaral)
— Cor de Guiné (Milton Amaral)
— Adeus Batucada (Synval Silva)
— Casaquinho de Tricot (Paulo Barbosa)
— Dia de Natal (Hervé Cordovil)
— Samba (Hervé Cordovil)
— Querido Adão (Benedicto Lacerda, Oswaldo Santiago)
— P'ra Fazer Você Chorar (Benedicto Lacerda, A. Cabral)

— Ô... (Assis Vermelho)
— Falla, Meu Pandeiro (Assis Valente)
— Nova Descoberta (Arlindo Marques, Roberto Roberti)
— Deixa Esse Povo Fallar (Arlindo Marques, Roberto Roberti)
— O que É que Você Fazia (Hervé Cordovil, Noel Rosa)
— Allô, Allô Carnaval (Hervé Cordovil, L. Babo)
— Duvi-d-ó-do (Benedicto Lacerda, João Barcellos)
— Esqueci de Sorrir (Russo)
— Quem Canta, Seus Males Espanta! (Walfrido Silva, Alcebíades Barcellos)
— Você Não Tem Pena (Russo, Bucy Moreira)
— Cantores de Rádio (A. Ribeiro de Barros, L. Babo)
— Rancor (Augusto Rocha, Paulo Frontin Werneck)
— Não Fui Eu (Arlindo Marques, Roberto Roberti)
— Capelinha do Coração (Arlindo Marques, Roberto Roberti)
— Meu Balão Subiu...Subiu... (Amado Regis, Marcílio Vieira)
— Paga Quem Deve (Amado Regis, Marcílio Vieira)
— Triste Sambista (Kid Pepe, Siqueira Filho)
— Não Durmo em Paz (Germano Augusto, Wilson Baptista)
— Cuíca, Pandeiro, Tamborim... (Custódio Mesquita)
— Sambista da Cinelândia (Custódio Mesquita, Mário Lago)
— Honrado um Nome de Mulher (Gadé, Walfrido Silva)
— Polichinelo (Gadé, Almanyr Grego)
— Ninguém Tem um Amor Igual ao Meu (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Terra Morena (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Como --Vaes— Você (Ary Barroso)
— No Tabuleiro da Baiana (Ary Barroso)
— Beijo Bamba (André filho)
— Pelo Amor Daquela Ingrata (André filho)
— Balance (João de Barro, Alberto Ribeiro)
— Minha Terra Tem Palmeira (João de Barro, Alberto Ribeiro)
— Dou-lhe Uma... (André Filho)
— Entra no Cordão (André Filho)
— Nem no Sétimo Dia (Benedicto Lacerda, Herivelto Martins)
— Como Eu Chorei (Benedicto Lacerda, herivaldo Martins)

— Não se Deve Lamentar (Ary Barrosos)
— Novo Amor (Ary Barroso)
— O Samba e o Tango (Amado Regis)
— Reminiscência Triste (Amado Regis)
— Saudade de Você (Synval Silva)
— Gente Bamba (Synval Silva)
— Cachorro Vira-Lata (Alberto Ribeiro)
— Imperador do Samba (Waldemar Silva)
— Dance Rumba (Djalma Esteves, Bucy Moreira)
— Em Tudo Menos em Ti (Oswaldo Santiago, Djalma Esteves)
— Cangiquinha Quente (Roberto Martins)
— Me Dá, Me Dá (Portello Juno, Cícero Nunes)
— Quem É? (Custódio Mesquita, Joracy Camargo)
— Cabaret no Morro (Herivelto Martins)
— Primavera da Vida (André Filho, Almanyr Grego)
— Bahiana do Tabuleiro (André Filho)
— Fon Fon (João de Barro, Alberto Ribeiro)
— Camisa Listada (Assis Valente)
— Quando Eu Penso na Bahia (Ary Barroso, Luiz Peixoto)
— Eu Dei... (Ary Barroso)

— Dona Geisha (Paulo Barbosa, Oswaldo Santiago)
— No Frêvo do Amôr (Paulo Barbosa, Oswaldo Santiago)
— Vira P'ra Cá (João de Barro, Alberto Ribeiro)
— Quantas Lágrimas (Marcílio Vieira, Alvarenguinha)
— Você Está Aí P'ra Isso? (Ary Barroso)
— Pois Sim, Pois Não! (Ary Barroso)
— Onde Vae Você Maria? (Benedicto Lacerda, Darcy Oliveira)
— Onde é Que Você Anda? (Cyro de Souza)
— ...E o Mundo Não Se Acabou (Assis Valente)
— Foi Embora P'ra Europa (Nelson Peterson)
— Sahe da Tóca Brasil! (Joubert de Carvalho)
— Endereço Errado (Paulo Carvalho)
— Nas Cadeiras da Bahiana (Portelo Juno, Leo Cardoso)
— Samba Rasgado (Portelo Juno, J. Pereira)
— Paris (Alberto Ribeiro, Alcyr Pires Vermelho)
— Veneno P'ra Dois (Alberto Ribeiro, João de Barro)
— Na Bahia (Herivelto Martins, Humberto Porto)
— Meu Rádio e Meu Mulato (Herivelto Martins)
— Deixa Falar! (Nelson Peterson)
— Quem Condemna a Batucada (Nelson Peterson)
— Boneca de Pixe (Ary Barroso, Luiz Iglezias)
— Escrevi um Bilhetinho (Ary Barroso)
— Salada Mixta (Ary Barroso)
— Na Baixa do Sapateiro (Ary Barroso)
— Batalhão do Amor (Ary Barroso)
— Vingança (Ary Barroso, Alcir Pires Vermelho)

— Cuidado com a Gaita do Ary (Oswaldo Santiago, Paulo Barbosa)
— A Pensão da Dona Stella (Paulo Barbosa, Oswaldo Santiago)
— A Vizinha das Vantagens (Ary Barroso, Alcyr Pires Vermelho)
— E a Festa Maria? (Ary Barroso, Alcyr Pires Vermelho)
— O que É que a Bahiana Tem? (Dorival Caymmi)
— A Preta do Acarajé (Dorival Caymmi)
— Uva de Caminhão (Assis Valente)
— Deixa Commigo (Assis Valente)
— Candieiro (Kid Pepe, David Nasser)
— Moreno Batuqueiro (Kid Pepe, Germano Augusto)
— Amor Ideal (Synval Silva)
— Nosso Amor Não Foi Assim (Synval Silva)
— Roda Pião (Dorival Caymmi)
— A Nossa Vida Hoje É Diferente (Cyro de Souza)
— Que Baixo (Milton amaral)
— Preto e Branco (Augusto Vasseur, Marques Porto, Luiz Peixoto)
— Cosinheira Granfina (Sá Roris)
— Mulato Anti-metropolitano (Laurindo de Almeida)
— Você Nasceu P'ra Ser Granfina (Laurindo de Almeida)

— Essa Cabrocha... (Portello Juno, J. Portella)
— Me Dá, Me Dá no Chang-Lang (Kid Pepe, Portello Juno)
— Voltei P'ro Morro (Vicente Paiva, Luiz Peixoto)
— Diz Que Tem... (Vicente Paiva, Anibal Cruz)
— Disso É que Eu Gosto (Luiz Peixoto e Vicente Paiva)
— Disseram que Voltei Americanisada (Luiz Peixoto e Vicente Paiva)
— Bruxinha de Pano (Luiz Peixoto e Vicente Paiva)
— Recenseamento (Assis Valente)

— O Dengo que a Nêga Tem (Dorival Caymmi)
— É um Quê que a Gente Tem (Ataulpho Alves, Torres Homem)
— Blanque-Blanque (Gomes Filho, Joracy de Araújo)
— Ginga-Ginga (Juracy de Araújo, Gomes Filho)


Carmen Miranda Official Fan Site: (Accessed 10/31/07)

The Internet Movie Database: (Bio by Denny Jackson): (Accessed 10/31/07)

"SOLID! The encyclopedia of big band, lounge, classic jazz and space-age sounds." (Accessed 10/31/07)

"Carmen Miranda: Bananas Is My Business" by Gary Morris, Bright Lights Film Journal (Accessed 10/31/07) Guide to Brazilian Music (Accessed 10/31/07)

Carmen Miranda Quotes from: (Accessed 10/31/07)

Some information about Carmen Miranda Tributes taken from Wikipedia: (Accessed 10/31/07)

Homestar Runner confuses Strong Bad for Chiquita Banana Lady: (Accessed 10/31/07)

"Carmen Miranda: Biography" by Dawn Marie: (Accessed 10/31/07)

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