Five tribes of Indians who originally lived in the Southeastern United States came to be known as the Five Civilized Tribes because of their advanced systems of government, education, and law enforcement. These tribes were the the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole. In the early to mid 1800s, all of these tribes were forcibly removed from their homelands to Oklahoma. Each of these tribes had a well developed culture prior to the move. The Choctaw even brought their law enforcement group called the Lighthorsemen to the new territory and maintained justice and safety for much of the area. The tribes each established territorial boundaries in Oklahoma. These were national domains, not reservations, and supposedly reflected the Indian's right to exist as a nation. Each of these nations reestablished their own government and judicial system in the new territory, as well as public education and economical systems. Of course, these accomplishments were not recognized by much of the United States Government and white christian society. When Oklahoma achieved statehood in 1907, the standing of the Five Civilized Tribes as individual nations was dissolved.

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