Facial feminization surgery is a series of plastic surgery procedures intended to reconstruct the male face to make it look more feminine.

FFS generally includes an advancement of the hairline, rhinoplasty, chondrolaryngoplasty, and bony work performed on the ridge of the forehead and the hard angles of the outer jaw. Sometimes hair transplants and chin reshaping are performed to the specification of the patient.

Not all procedures are done at the same time. Most are combined into pairs and then performed separately, usually months apart from one another.

Few male-to-female transgender people have all the procedures performed; most of those who can afford it go about halfway. The most common procedures are rhinoplasty, chondrolaryngoplasty, and hairline advancement.

These procedures had, of course, all been in use separately for years prior to the concept of FFS. Dr. Douglas Ousterhout, a plastic surgeon/dentist practicing in San Francisco, California, began combining the procedures to create a more feminine facial appearance for male-to-female transsexuals in the 1970s. His seminal whitepaper, The Feminization of the Transsexual, laid the ground work for the few other surgeons who specialize in transgender procedures.

The Feminization of the Transsexual: http://www.drbecky.com/dko.html

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