The Big Five refers in psychology to the fundamental set of personality traits. Although sometimes given different names, these include Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness to Experience. Sometimes Intelligence is added to this list to form 6 factors.
These personality traits have consistently emerged when performing factor analysis on people’s ratings of other people. The model is generally understood hierarchically with each global personality trait having multiple sub-traits that are correlated with the global trait.