Held at the request of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands and Czar Nicholas II of Russia to discuss worldwide reduction in arms and standardization of the rules of war. The ten week conference, held at the Huis ten Bosch palace in Den Haag, ended in late July and adopted conventions of civilized warfare.

Among the agreements made was a five year moratorium on the use of aerial bombardment from balloons; a permanent ban on "the use of projectiles the object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases;" and a permanent ban on the use of bullets designed to mushroom upon impact with the human body (much like the dum-dum bullets of the time did).

The convention also allowed for the creation of a Permanent Court of Arbitration, or a War Crimes Tribunal, to settle disputes in this and future conventions.

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