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Caria was an ancient region in southwest Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey, bordered on one side by the Aegean Sea and on the other side by the ancient region of Lydia. In early times Caria was an autonomous kingdom, with a feared navy, but by the 5th century BC had fallen under the dominion of the Persian Empire. Caria gained a quasi-independence under Persian satrap Mausolus in the 370s, when it participated in a revolt by western satrapies, but was later brought back into the Persian fold, and then was conquered in 334 BC by Alexander the Great. Following Alexander's death in 323 BC, Caria switched hands many times in the wars among his successors, until it was ultimately incorporated into the Roman Empire as part of the province of Asia. Famous Carian cities included Halicarnassus and Miletus.

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